Political theorist Alexis de Tocqueville, in his book Democracy in America, attempted to show why representative democracy succeeded in the United States and argues for the superiority of democracy, believing “Islam cannot dominate for long in enlightened and democratic times" . In his book, Islamic Government, Ayatollah Khomeini, former Supreme Leader of Iran, offers a different point of view, arguing that the best government is one that is run in accordance with sharia law. Khomeini underscores the need for the union of church and state, and condemns all other forms of governments for being anti-Islamic and allowing immorality to reign. The following essay will evaluate the arguments posed on behalf of Islamic government and Liberal Democracy
Natural rights are those not contingent upon the laws, customs, or beliefs of any particular culture or government, and therefore universal and inalienable. The idea of human rights is also closely related to that of natural rights, some acknowledge no difference between the two, regarding them as synonymous, while others choose to keep the terms separate to eliminate association with some features traditionally associated with natural rights. Natural rights, in particular, are considered beyond the authority of any government or international body to dismiss. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is an important legal instrument enshrining one conception of natural rights into international soft law. Natural rights were traditionally viewed as exclusively negative right, where as human rights also comprise positive rights.
These rights are natural because human nature being there primary source of evolution. • Violation of human rights by the state The concept of AFSPA, can be highly refuted by this school of thought. As according to them, the man made laws can be called as just and fair, only if theyare subjected to objective moral principles, and they does not violate the natural rights of the individuals, on whom they are imposed. The state by enacting AFSPA, to attain national integrity and to fulfill the rhetoric of nationalism, tries to violate those basic human rights of the individuals, which are conferred to them by an eternal authority, which prohibits the state from violate them. The provisions of AFSPA, such as section 4(a), gives the officer in charge, a power to arrest anyone, with minor suspicion of him possessing fire arms, and anyone who is part of an assembly of more than 5 people, and even kill them , if they according to that officer are trying to abscond.
The stories by Poe and Hawthorn prove that Evil is widely accepted in the fact that humans are corruptible and sinful creatures, that even the most faithful and humble people have a capability to lie, cheat, criticize, and murder without passion. The two stories summarize man 's scope for evil as being boundless and display that evil is present inside all, no matter how good or righteous they may appear to be. Montresor and Brown are motivated to see the evil in everyone because they, themselves, are corruptible and capable of evil. Evil is a force that rules and threatens our world. Evil is a personified power that deceives humans both internally and externally.
In his eyes the right to property is natural, or pre-contractual. He also argued that no one ought to infringe the right of another as all are equal and independent. According to John Locke, whatsoever a man removes out of State is that nature has provided and left it in, he had mixed it with his labour, and joined to it something that is his own and therefore makes it his
Immanuel kant wrote his famous ethical treatise foundations of the metaphysics of morals before the rise of English utilitarianism, but he was well equinted with the idea of founding morality on the feelings of pleasure and pain, rather than on reason . Firstly, Kant was of the view in related to the ideas of Jeremy becham and Stuart mill and both of them focused on the pleasure is coming. Kant then worked on his theory and focused on reason. Moral obligations thus have nothing to do with consequences, in Kant’s view but arises solely from a moral law that is binding on all rational beings. The Main Features of Kant’s Theory : The main features of the ethical theory presented in the foundation can be illustrated by considering one of Kant’s own example.
For a nation to be sovereign it needs to be able to make its own decisions and has the freedom to do what it deems best, even if it isn’t agreed upon by the rest of the Earth. So yes, the ban is in violation of the nations, all the nations sovereignty. 3.) A culture should be free to make its own laws and exemptions; thus keeping its sovereignty. If the problem that arises affects the whole Earth then maybe a panel should be formed but not to change or go against the nation.
His’ A Theory of Justice’, most significantly, has been a rich source of ideas which continue to impact contemporary discussions about society and politics. Rawls 's Theory of Justice is extensively considered as one of this century 's most important pieces of political philosophy. The renowned philosopher’s ideology takes as its starting point the argument that "the most reasonable principles of justice are those everyone would accept and agree to from a fair position". By using a similar alternative to the social contract, in his Theory of Justice, Rawls addresses the problem of distributive justice. The theory which he then presents us with, “Justice as Fairness", includes his two
Everyone is born innately different according to Plato. Only those who are born with true philosophical understanding can rule. In the Second Treatise by John Locke, Locke addresses the state of nature, which is essentially equality and freedom. Even though people have liberty, they still need to obey natural laws. On the contrary of Plato’s just city, Locke believes that absolute authority is not a civil government.
Punishment is decided by the sovereign. The sovereign acts in the name of the general interest of the civil society. Man joins the civil society to live in peace which is not possible in the state of nature. As previously stated the sovereign, the Leviathan is granted with extremely strong power. The covenant gives legitimacy to the absolute power of one person.