Political theorist Alexis de Tocqueville, in his book Democracy in America, attempted to show why representative democracy succeeded in the United States and argues for the superiority of democracy, believing “Islam cannot dominate for long in enlightened and democratic times" . In his book, Islamic Government, Ayatollah Khomeini, former Supreme Leader of Iran, offers a different point of view, arguing that the best government is one that is run in accordance with sharia law. Khomeini underscores the need for the union of church and state, and condemns all other forms of governments for being anti-Islamic and allowing immorality to reign. The following essay will evaluate the arguments posed on behalf of Islamic government and Liberal Democracy
Natural rights are those not contingent upon the laws, customs, or beliefs of any particular culture or government, and therefore universal and inalienable. The idea of human rights is also closely related to that of natural rights, some acknowledge no difference between the two, regarding them as synonymous, while others choose to keep the terms separate to eliminate association with some features traditionally associated with natural rights. Natural rights, in particular, are considered beyond the authority of any government or international body to dismiss. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is an important legal instrument enshrining one conception of natural rights into international soft law. Natural rights were traditionally viewed as exclusively negative right, where as human rights also comprise positive rights.
These rights are natural because human nature being there primary source of evolution. • Violation of human rights by the state The concept of AFSPA, can be highly refuted by this school of thought. As according to them, the man made laws can be called as just and fair, only if theyare subjected to objective moral principles, and they does not violate the natural rights of the individuals, on whom they are imposed. The state by enacting AFSPA, to attain national integrity and to fulfill the rhetoric of nationalism, tries to violate those basic human rights of the individuals, which are conferred to them by an eternal authority, which prohibits the state from violate them.
The stories by Poe and Hawthorn prove that Evil is widely accepted in the fact that humans are corruptible and sinful creatures, that even the most faithful and humble people have a capability to lie, cheat, criticize, and murder without passion. The two stories summarize man 's scope for evil as being boundless and display that evil is present inside all, no matter how good or righteous they may appear to be. Montresor and Brown are motivated to see the evil in everyone because they, themselves, are corruptible and capable of evil. Evil is a force that rules and threatens our world. Evil is a personified power that deceives humans both internally and externally.
“There is nothing which so generally strikes the imagination, and engages the affections of mankind, as the right of property”. – Blackstone “Property is the root of all evil: and at the same time, property is that toward all the activity of modern world is directed, and that which directs the activity of the world”. – Tolstoy “That government can scarcely be deemed to be free where the rights of property are left solely dependent upon the will of a legislative body without any restraint”. -Joseph Story 1.1.
Immanuel kant wrote his famous ethical treatise foundations of the metaphysics of morals before the rise of English utilitarianism, but he was well equinted with the idea of founding morality on the feelings of pleasure and pain, rather than on reason . Firstly, Kant was of the view in related to the ideas of Jeremy becham and Stuart mill and both of them focused on the pleasure is coming. Kant then worked on his theory and focused on reason. Moral obligations thus have nothing to do with consequences, in Kant’s view but arises solely from a moral law that is binding on all rational beings. The Main Features of Kant’s Theory :
So yes, the ban is in violation of the nations, all the nations sovereignty. 3.) A culture should be free to make its own laws and exemptions; thus keeping its sovereignty. If the problem that arises affects the whole Earth then maybe a panel should be formed but not to change or go against the nation.
The shape and content of both political and social philosophy has been significantly revolutionized since the emergence of John Rawls’ ideas. His’ A Theory of Justice’, most significantly, has been a rich source of ideas which continue to impact contemporary discussions about society and politics. Rawls 's Theory of Justice is extensively considered as one of this century 's most important pieces of political philosophy. The renowned philosopher’s ideology takes as its starting point the argument that "the most reasonable principles of justice are those everyone would accept and agree to from a fair position". By using a similar alternative to the social contract, in his Theory of Justice, Rawls addresses the problem of distributive justice.
Only those who are born with true philosophical understanding can rule. In the Second Treatise by John Locke, Locke addresses the state of nature, which is essentially equality and freedom. Even though people have liberty, they still need to obey natural laws. On the contrary of Plato’s just city, Locke believes that absolute authority is not a civil government. A civil society is where the majority rules.
Man joins the civil society to live in peace which is not possible in the state of nature. As previously stated the sovereign, the Leviathan is granted with extremely strong power. The covenant gives legitimacy to the absolute power of one person. One body of power, the sovereign (it can also be an assembly) is given absolute, undivided and
1) “Without God, there would be no universally valid morality.” ( Pojman, pg. 356) “He is the creator of the moral law, and defines its very nature.” ( Pojman, Pg.356) “‘If God doesn’t exist, everything is permissible’ nothing is forbidden or require. Without God we have moral nihilism” (Pojman, Pg.356) “We are against torturing the innocent because it is cruel and unjust, just as God is against torturing the innocent because it is cruel and unjust.
Thusly, the principle of middle knowledge permits one to attest an extremely solid perspective of divine sovereignty in which nothing happens separated from God 's will or consent, and a libertarian perspective of human freedom in which individuals can do other than what they really do. To clarify on these statements I will be using a hypothetical situation to further my beliefs and standings. If God were to place John in Pilates position he (John) would choose to release Jesus by his own free actions, but God knows that this would go against his preordained plan. He chose to have made Pilate so his plans would go accordingly. Had God known that Pilate would choose to release Jesus He could have chosen not to create him.
The author feels the Supreme court is a bad idea because they think it will lead to abuse of power and the Supreme Court will take over the government because there wasn’t a system of checks to limit its power yet. The author shows this view when they say “In the exercise of this power they will not be subordinate to, but above the legislature . . . The supreme court then has a right, independent of the legislature, to give a construction to the constitution and every part of it, and there is no power provided in this system to correct their construction or do it away.” (Antifederalist 79) This shows he thinks the Supreme Court will have the power to bend the constitution to its whim.
Therefore, King believed that any law that goes against the natural law – God’s law and principles - is an unjust law, just as Thomas Aquinas stated. “An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law.” Therefore, if said law doesn’t uplift people’s humanity we have the right to break it. And in his case, fight for it to be
Nature plays a huge role in the “Second Treatise of Government” by John Locke which was read and analyzed throughout class. Anthropocentrism is highlighted throughout Locke’s text; the belief that humans are at a higher value on earth opposed to everything else. Locke brings in the question of what kind of state is nature classified as with it comes to his political theory? ; Intrinsic or Instrumental. Locke's political theory is that each person has a right to product of his or her labor (rights of property).