John Locke's Principles Of Morality

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John Locke: He is the father of British empiricism. He defines morality as based on the command of God. According to Locke, the basic principles of morality are decreed by God and are self-evident. From these self-evident principles, detailed rules of conduct can be deduced with certainty as in mathematics. In other words, Locke maintains that good actions tend to cause pleasure while bad action tends to cause pain. For Locke, morality is the law of God, and God supports his laws with sanctions. God also will punish those who violate the moral law and reward those who keep them. Immanuel Kant: Immanuel Kant argued that moral requirements are based on a standard of rationality he dubbed the “Categorical Imperative.” Immorality thus involves…show more content…
In other words, reason is not concerned with morality but with speculative truth such as those of mathematics and physics. Morality for him is based on sentiments, natural feeling, natural tendencies and passion. These are what move man to action and they determine the choice of action. Moral approval and disapproval are based not just on rationality but also on sentiments, feelings and emotions. We approve actions to be good because of its natural inclinations and also because it pleases us, and we disapprove actions to be evil because there are no natural inclinations and also because they displease us. Thus, morality is a matter of natural feeling, natural tendencies or inclination and not a question of…show more content…
Sequel to the time of Nietzsche, morality has been seen from the light that it is the commandment transmitted to us by a supreme lawgiver whom we must obey. Thus, the idea of the supreme lawgiver must be seriously defended for if it disappears, our morality must go with it and what a disaster that would be. Nietzsche however deviates from the popular consensus as far as morality is concerned. In tracing the origin of morality he wanted to point out that the force of morality is not the function of its divine or semi-divine origin and that crediting a god with our moral code is but a myth. For him, moralities evolved over time as natural phenomena in answer to a need to hold society together, to ensure their perpetuation and to help contain the drives and impulses which could without some check or sublimation, threaten or destroy the fabric of human relations. Furthermore, Richard Schacht said
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