says that “the human society is essentially a series of market relations; and political society becomes a means of safeguarding private property and the system of economic relations rooted in property” (Macpherson, 1). John Locke (1632-1704), another eminent political thinker based his notion of individualism on the premise of theological justification. He views all individuals as being created equal in the eyes of the creator and therefore God reserves the right to ownership of all the individuals. And therefore it becomes incumbent on the part of an individual to recognise the right and freedom of the other individual . The basic essence of his theory of individualism is that an individual is expected to live within the confines of a social …show more content…
He generally, indeed, neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it. By preferring the support of domestic to that of foreign industry, he intends only his own security; and by directing that industry in such a manner as its produce may be of the greatest value, he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention........ By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it.” (Smith …show more content…
His advocacy of individual and economic freedom had augured well the path for individualism to be imbibed by the individuals in the society. Hence, his theory of individualism is called economic individualism. He is of the view that “it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong” (Bentham 3). And this very principle as enunciated by Bentham constitutes the basic essence of his philosophy of utilitarianism. However, this very principle of utilitarianism also faces criticism in later time for the fact that it cannot adequately safeguard the rights of every individual person and that happiness depends on many other things other than based on this principle. It is also as against the extreme form of individualism that many thinkers stand opposed to the same. Many thinkers fear that the practice of individualism may bring the organic social order and harmony of the society into jeoparady. Edmund Burke (1729- 1797) is of the view that liberalism which is identified with modern notion of individualism has no positive influence on the society if exercised alone. In such a case, it may give rise to unruly behaviour on the part of the individual in the society. He says that “the unsteady and precarious contribution of individuals” therefore would never be able to promote welfare either in politics or in any
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Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) had studied political science and had read Locke's Two Treatises on Civil Government while he was in college. He was very impressed with the ideas of John Locke, especially with the idea that no government could exist without the approval of the people. Jefferson also believed that if a government treated its citizens unfairly, the citizens could break away and form a new government. In the summer of 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.
The historical development of the world from 1690 to 1830 wouldn’t be what it was if it weren’t for John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government. Locke’s Second Treatise not only sparked individualism, but also revolutions, and was a guide to the creations of declarations around the world. Two main revolutions and declarations that Locke’s ideas inspired were the American Revolution and the French Revolution.
These four great minds are what shaped the future and paved a new way of thinking. They carved the world into what it is known as today. They were the ones who said that people make their own choices and should be given choice. They are the Philosophes. The great thinkers were John Locke, Adam Smith, Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet), and Mary Wollstonecraft.
There are many principles of government from the Declaration of Independence that are still valid today. One principle is that all persons are rightfully sovereign over their own affairs, which do not infringe upon the rights of others. This principle is still valid because we should have rights and ownership to our own property, and no one should be able to take that property away. It makes sure that what you own doesn’t affect other people, and protects their property as well. The government created to protect the rights of the people, and is consented by the governed, is also an important principle.
The average man, though he longs for freedom, feels the need to be safe. People naturally wish to have the freedom to act on things, believe in things or say things, but, they want themselves and their families to be safe while doing so. Alongside the need for safety, man has a need for privacy. People tend to react negatively to others digging into their personal lives, creating a want for their own privacy in life. This subconscious need for safety and privacy has always trumped man’s desire for absolute freedom.
However, the idea of individualism is that the individual’s life exists for him and that he has an unavoidable entitlement to live it as he wishes. A person’s independent life means to follow up on his own judgment, to keep and utilize the result of his exertion, and to chase after the estimations of his choosing. Individualism is the thought that the free spirit is sovereign, an end in himself, and the principal component of righteous concern. This is the ideal that our society upholds till today. Our society made a nation in which the individual’s rights to life, freedom, property, and the pursuit of happiness are perceived and
John Locke was a philosopher and political scientist. He had many interests and produced a number of writings that influenced future leaders. One of these leaders was Thomas Jefferson, who was involved with the aid of America and the act gaining independence from Britain. The Declaration of Independence and Locke’s views on government contain many similar aspects. These ideas includes the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (natural rights); the protection that is provided by the government for these rights; and the altering or abolishment of government if it fails to provide and protect the rights of the people.
Individualism has been around a while a well. This is the rights that are valued above those of the state individual
A number of factors played a part of choosing what government the founding fathers would choose. At first, they established the Articles of Confederation. The Articles were ratified during war with Britain, so it was set in a war based aura. It allowed the country to conduct foreign affairs, declare war, and make treaties. It could not collect taxes, but the states could.
Individualism not only helps a society grow, but also help the people in it realise that they are good at doing. Richard Koch in this article “In Individual Good or Bad,” compared the pros and cons of individualism. He believes that “individualism has been an enormous success in encouraging ordinary people
In this paper, I will refute Jeremy Bentham’s principle of utility by showing that it overshadows the importance of the courses of action taken when making decisions. Bentham discusses, in “ Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation”, the principle of utility which says that, “By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question: or, what is the same thing in other words, to promote or to oppose that happiness” (Bentham, 31). According to the English philosopher’s morality, this principle requires the approbation of actions if and only
In this paper, I will look at and criticize John Locke’s account of Personal Identity as well as put forward arguments of my own of what I consider to be the unreliability of that which Locke terms as consciousness in relation to and as a composition of ‘Personal Identity’. Before we can arrive at a discussion of consciousness it is essential to follow Locke’s thought process and see how he arrived at a differentiation between substance, person, self (an alternate term for person used in the latter half of the chapter) and consciousness. It is essential to realize that for Locke personal identity consists in the identity of consciousness. We know this because he says as much in the following passage: “[T]he same consciousness being preserv’d…the
Justice is one of the most important moral and political concepts. The word comes from the Latin word jus, meaning right or law. According to Kelsen (2000), Justice is primarily a possible, but not a necessary, quality of a social order regulating the mutual relations of men As a result of its importance, prominent and knowledgeable people have shared their views on justice and what it means and how the state is involved in its administration. The likes of Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke among others have written extensively on the concept of justice.