That is why there is a desire to understand the reason behind this radical change. And the first arises: how should Burke be regarded, as a liberal or conservative? CB Macpherson (1984) discussed that "his work was valued by the moderate reformist Whigs as a support ... Then came a new role, as a scourge of egalitarian liberal ideas engendered by the French Revolution, as the great defender of the hierarchical society against traditional theory "(p. 15). ** Indeed, the detailed
He wanted stability both within states and between states by convincing the great powers of their mutual interests in preserving the European order. He believed that conserving traditional institutions was the best strategy to deliver this. Peace externally depended on the balance of power, or no nation being too powerful either economically or militarily. Metternich was a staunch conservative who regarded liberalism and nationalism as threats to the survival of the Austrian Empire. As Austria was a multiethnic empire of the great powers, Metternich believed, needed to repress nationalism and create a system of collective security to maintain the statusquo.
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was an English philosopher who had a huge influence over 19th century ethical and political thinking. Mill was a strong advocate for Utilitarianism; a moral theory that aimed to create “the greatest happiness for the greatest number”. In 1859, Mill published his book, “On Liberty” which expressed his conception of individual autonomy and advocated a democracy that respresents all people. This essay will illustrate the premises present in chapter two of “On Liberty” in which Mill argues for inclusive freedom of speech and demonstrates the legitimacy of doing so. Mill begins by arguing that it is illogical to give authority of voice to one person or group over another because human beings are equally fallible.
John Locke, one of the most influential philosophers during the Enlightenment, based his governance in social contract theory. He believed that humans are rational and should follow natural law. He believed that all men are born equally with the right of life, liberty, and property. His theory of natural right has influenced many political documents including the United States Declaration of
This essay will focus on portraying the grounds on which Locke is considered a modern liberal constitutionalist, taking into account his major works, A Letter Concerning Toleration(1689) and The Second Treatise of Civil Government(1689). Locke examines life without a civil government and then he effectively explicates how a civil government can be created and maintained in a commonwealth in The Second Treatise of Civil Government(1689). He considers the period before the existence of civil government as a “state of nature”, where nobody is considered inferior or superior and where this sense of equality fosters great maxims of justice, charity, mutual love and the duties that people owe one another. It is a state where there is no common political power as such. The civil government is created due to the disturbances in the state of nature which has surfaced because of the tremendous rise in population, decrease in available resources and
Locke also argued that when the monarch becomes a tyrant, that constituted a violation of the social contract, which bestows life, liberty, and property as a natural right. He concluded that the people have a right to overthrow a tyrant. By placing life, liberty and property as the supreme value of law and authority, Locke formulated the basis of liberalism based on social contract theory. To Locke securing the most essential amenities of life — liberty and private property among them — required the formation of a "sovereign" authority with universal
Introduction Liberalism helps explaining foreign policy by emphasizing how individuals, ideas, and ideals support fundamental human rights, liberty, and democracy as well. Moreover, liberalism is considered with principles such as importance of the freedom of the individual and importance of moral freedom of the right to be treated equally. The political conception of liberalism originally included the whole world. And the ideas that the liberal seeks to realize in a confined space must also believed to operate in a large scale within the international politics. If the liberal makes a distinction between domestic and foreign policy, it does so solely for the convenience of the vast field of political problems on the main types of units, not
Jeremy Bentham (1748 - 1832) (Sweet, n.d.) outlines that Bentham was an English political reformer, known as the father of Utilitarianism which means “the greatest good/happiness for the greatest number.” Major Works (Crimmins, 2015) examined the political views of Bentham and identified two of his major works: 1. A fragment on Government (1776) – in which he disagrees with natural rights. 2. Principles of Morals and Legislation (1780) – which focuses on the principle of utility and how this view of morality ties into legislative practice. This body of work is also based on the assumption that individuals seek pleasure and avoids pain; and forms a guide to moral decision-making.
Richard Avenarius (1843-1896) [ Paris, Zürich]. Richard is noted for his theory of experience, which he expounded in Critique of Pure Experience (1888-1890). He claimed that the fundamental necessity of human thought is biological economy. He valued Spinoza because of his reduction of all ideas to a single one. Avenarius was aware that problems arise in experience when there is a state of tension between individual and environment, calling for a greater or lesser expenditure of energy than the individual is ready to give.
One of the most compelling, liberal arguments for freedom of expression was made by 19th century philosopher John Stuart Mill in his book On Liberty. This essay will assess Mill 's arguments for free speech, Mill 's Harm Principle on when free speech should be limited and lastly The Harm Principle on two separate issues: pornography and hate