Justice is one of the most important moral and political concepts. Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. Philosophers want to get further than etymology and dictionary definitions to consider, for example, the nature of justice as both a moral virtue of character and a desirable quality of political society, as well as how it applies to ethical and social decision-making. Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality.
Main Points in the Law of Peoples. John Rawls was an influential political philosopher and his publications are widely read. One of which is the Law of Peoples published in 1993 which is the subject of my study. In the Law of the Peoples Rawls concerns of the general principles whereby one can uphold and be accept accepted by the liberal people as well as the non-liberal society. “This principle is a standard for which can be useful in regulating the behavior of the citizens towards one and other.” Having learned from his childhood experience of discrimination, Rawls made a distinction between the basic human rights and the rights of each individual person in the constitutional democracy.
Liberalism also shares the idea with realism to use military power to get what they want or need, also military power can be used if other country threatening or bully on the own liberal state. But theoretically liberalism is the theory of peace and development and believes in measuring power through economy, liberal ideas such as freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic societies, gender equality, international cooperation, freedom of speech and press, when with the other hand realism believes in ideas such as conflicts, aggression, militaristic expansions and also they believe that state would act according to their own ideas and needs when liberals believe that state would act according to their populations needs and ideas. But both theories share the idea that without military power state can be destroyed or insulted by another country. I consider myself as a liberal and mostly liberalism is theory which makes me thinking about things that can be changed in aggressive world by liberalism such as equal rights regardless of sexual orientation or to have every woman the same rights as men, through liberalism I also believe in freedom and equal living wage. I have sympathies to liberalism because believe in government actions to achieve equal opportunity and
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke Jean-Jacques and Rousseau were philosophers who made highly influential arguments on how a social contract should take form. A social contract is a concept of a consensus thought to be mutually beneficial between and for individuals, groups, government or a community as a whole. All three philosophers use a social contract theory as a means of explaining the necessity of a government in a given society. The aim of this essay is to establish the commonalities and differences between the proposed concepts of social contracts as envisioned by each of the great minds. Rousseau, Hobbes and Locke are mainly renowned for their masterpieces on political philosophy, Rousseau’s On the Social Contract, Hobbes’ Leviathan and Locke’s Two Treatise of Government.
Liberalism in international relations is represented by contradicting claims about the necessity of the conflict as a way of resolving contention among members of the international community and vice versa highlights the possibility of peace between independent states. American presidnet Ronald Regan in his speech beore the British Parliament stated that government based on respect for individual freedoms is reflected in its foreign policy of restraint and peaceful inclinations. (Doyle, 1997, page 205) Throughout the times, liberalism has gone through many changes and has established different varieties of the theory. The first stage of liberalism, known as philosophic liberalism, lasted from the 17th to the early 19th century. A philosopher, John Locke was the first one to point out liberal thoughts and views.
Thomas Hobbes has been famous for his philosophies on political and social order. In many of his scholastic works, he maintains the position that in the presence of a higher authority the duty of the rest of mankind is to simply obey. The discourse on this essay will focus on his views expressed in his book The Leviathan. In this book Hobbes’ views are fundamentally entrenched in his description that in a society with no higher authority life would be nasty, short and brutish (? ).This essay will engage in discussion by first laying out the conceptual arguments of anarchy and the human state of nature.
When we look at the basic features of neoliberalism, it is first of all "confronted with the analysis of peace and co-operation. Neoliberalism analyzes international relations at the unit level. Neoliberals, however, are concerned with the "system-level outcomes of unit-level causes. The basic principle of liberalism, democracy, continues to be the most basic principle of neoliberalism. According to neoliberals, cooperation between liberal democratic states is possible.
This essay is composed upon the belief that there should be a limit to what is allowed to be expressed when it is on the expense of others, both physically and mentally. Freedom of expression is a very broad term that causes definitional problems. One can express their political beliefs or thoughts on the economic crisis, but under the concept of free speech in a democracy, also voice hate speeches and offensive falsehoods. Mill would argue that these kinds of speech should be allowed… The English philosopher John Stuart Mill is known as one of the great defenders of liberty, and through his essay On Liberty he summarizes his thoughts on the relationship between authority and liberty. He argues against governmental interference when it comes to three main liberties; the freedom of thought and emotion, the freedom to pursue tastes, and the freedom to unite.
Liberal democracy - A form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism, so protects the rights of the individual, which are generally enshrined in law. Constitutional republics like France and Germany have employed liberal democracy, as well as presidential systems like the USA. Political participation - Political participation is any activity that shapes, affects, or involves the political sphere, such as voting or attending a protest. UK Voting Systems — Main Systems And How They Work An electoral system is the method that votes are counted and results calculated in an election. There are three main types of electoral system: Majoritarian system - systems that tend to be simple and lead to governments having strong majorities, but are often disproportional.
Central to Transformative constitutionalism is the provision of services and the leveling of economic playing fields . It also means that Judges have the final responsibility to defend their rulings by reference to the law and ‘reference to ideas and values’ . Zikode speaks of a bifurcated world/society, in other words, SA has two different classes of society . Zikode builds on this notion of an unequal legal system where the legal system favours the rich, the law is used to criminalize the poor and demobilizes the organised poor. However Zidoke has shed some positive light in that the law can also be beneficial for the poor but we need the rule of money to be removed from the legal system as well as radical lawyers.