In addition, scientists use the homologous structure as evidence for evolution by using structures with different appearances and functions that derived from the same body parts in a common ancestor. Furthermore, natural selection is evidence for evolution because for example, when Darwin collected birds they were a closely related group of distinct species, but the different beak shapes were related to food gathering. Artificial selection is another piece of evidence for evolution in which operates by favoring individuals with certain phenotypic traits allowing them to reproduce and pass their genes to the next generation. Overall many biologists accepted Darwin’s theories but there are some objections such as how evolution is not demonstrated, no fossil intermediates, the intelligent design argument, evolution violating the second law of thermodynamics, proteins are too improbable, the irreducible complexity argument, and how natural selection does not imply
To every story there are at least two sides; for any considered conclusion a fact must have a contradiction. Moreover, arguments follow in tow. Henry Drummond in Inherit the Wind by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee, displays the significance to Creationism and Darwinism in tandem. For either side to appropriately stay considered they must correlate with opposition. For an argument to be substantial and taken seriously, it must have debatable opposition and equal representation.
Critical thinking can help people think more clearly and deeply about a problem. Critical thinking is necessary to evaluate and scrutinize thoughts, beliefs, and feelings. For instance, when people decide to make a decision about religion, critical thinkers will have more skill in making their belief and action more accurate. In the drama Inherit the Wind, Brady is a man who has a strong belief in God through the Bible. Drummond is an agnostic who does not affirm in the existence of God, and accepts in the evolution theory of Darwin. They argue about the belief in God and the evolution of Darwin that Brady calls “Evil-ution”. There are two main logical
The Strange Case Of Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde: Charles Darwin’s revolutionary idea of evolution sparked dramatic debate in the scientific and, most especially, religious communities, as well as inspiring a new wave of thought in the minds of the world. There was also plenty of controversy, particularly from the many believers of creationism during the Victorian Age. But by denying creationism with his own theories, Darwin “made room for strictly scientific explanations of all natural phenomena”, and as a result, initiated a “powerful intellectual and spiritual revolution” whose effects last to this day. Its profound impact meant that “nearly every field of social and cultural life was affected by the idea of evolution.” Darwin’s idea of natural
When we ask people about their thoughts on how the world was created, the first idea that comes to mind is the story of Genesis. Most people generally assume that there is only one account of creation, the account that portrays God as the sole creator since in the Genesis account he creates heaven, earth, man/woman, and other living things. However, Genesis is not the only face of creation because religious texts from different cultures tell us otherwise. In ancient near east religions, there are two creation myths that give their own different accounts. While some details of the Genesis account are similar to the Enuma Elish of Babylon and the Memphite Theology of Egypt, each account individually brings their own nationalistic pride and personal touch. Each culture establishes their own story of creation, as well as their own portrayal of who is “the supreme creator”.
Stephen Jay Gould's article, "Sex, Drugs, Disasters, and the Extinction of Dinosaurs”, discusses the essence of science and takes into consideration the significant distinction between both science and mere speculations. To my understanding, Gould is trying to communicate to his readers that sometimes scientists too fall victim to the trending themes of our culture and develop these senseless speculations to gain recognition. In order to prove his point, Gould introduces three theories on how the demise of the dinosaurs came to be- sex, drugs, and disaster. He explains that these will be an effective way of illustrating the difference between pseudoscience and genuine science. In my opinion, Gould’s purpose was to show us, the readers, how
In the article “Evolution as Fact and Theory” Stephen Jay Gould who is one of the leading theorists in evolution argues that the debate between evolutionists and creationists is pointless since creationists’ arguments lack support and evidence. Gould writes that creationists’ main argument is that evolution is only a theory. However, Gould states that it is not only a theory but also a fact. He suggests that humans evolved from apelike— whether or not is happened by Darwin’s mechanism. What Gould is saying is that there is more than enough evidence to support the theory of evolution and the question that scientists are trying to answer is how exactly all living organisms are linked. It makes him sad to realize that his colleagues find it easier
Over the eras, many scientists have expressed concerns with Darwin's evolution theory and in "Was Darwin Wrong?" by David Quammen one can learn about the proof behind the theory of evolution. Many people do not believe in evolution due to an overall unawareness about the theory and religious upbringing. However, Quammen clarifies the truth behind evolution in his article. The article states five positions of evidence biogeography, embryology, morphology, paleontology, and the bacterial resistance to antibiotics discovered in humans. In this summary of "Was Darwin Wrong?" by Quammen I will explain the evidence behind the theory of evolution and evaluate each of the five categories of evidence of evolution.
The theory of evolution has been discussed, evaluated, and researched many times since the theory was first brought to light. Darwin’s theory of evolution is said to be divided into two parts, common decent and natural selection (Bouzat, 2014). Many research papers agreeing with Darwin’s theory comment on the diversity of a species and how they have descended from one common ancestor. Natural selection is a process in which species that are better adapted to the environment tend to survive and reproduce (Dictonary.com). Natural selection is seen in the finches that Darwin studied on the Galapagos Islands. Environment and food supply changes caused the finches beaks to adapt in a unique way. Studies on Darwin’s finches show us that natural selection in a natural environment is interpretable, observable, and repeatable (Grant, 2003). Natural selection is representable in different types of birds such as the Island Scrub-jay. A study published in 2015 on these Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis) demonstrates examples of natural selection. The Cambrian explosion argues against Darwin’s theory of natural selection. It
Historical knowledge and science provide a point where biblical and cultural stories collide (Goheen & Bartholomew, p. 130). Culture is communicated through common stories and events. Science or the human desire to explain what is seen can be identified within Greek mythology throughout history to the postmodern views of today. The Christian worldview provides a basis for belief in a creator, not dependent on human action continue existence (Goheen & Bartholomew, p. 23). Scientific exploration and discovery is a part of God’s creation. There ae sections of the Bible that discuss items such as dinosaurs, hydrology, physics, anthropology, biology and geology (Science and the Bible, 2003). Increasing scientific knowledge has supported the validity of the Bible. The postmodern worldview that does not acknowledge God as the singular source of creation should not be incorporated into a Christian
One of the main arguments that Darwinsts use is the argument that fossils are evidence of evolution. I have gathered information from Your Inner Fish and internet sources. I found an article online that says in a nutshell; there 's two lines of evidence for evolution. The first line of evidence concerns the order in which fossils are found buried. Fossils are generally found buried in a sequential order. The first fossilized fish appear buried below the first fossilized amphibians which appear below the first fossilized reptiles which appear below the first fossilized birds and mammals. This is consistent with the Darwinian model of origins which says that birds and mammals evolved from reptiles which evolved from amphibians which evolved from fish. Not everything about the order in which fossils are found supports Darwin’s theory however. The basic structure of known
To put this into perspective, paleontologists scale life’s history down to an earth year in which humans did not appear until the very last day of the calendar year. In fact, most of life has consisted of single-celled organisms. The first bodies were not even really seen until the 1920s, and when they were finally discovered, people didn’t even pay much attention, that is until Martin Glassner came around. Glassner, after observing the findings of Martin Gurich and Reginald Sprigg, proved, without a doubt, that their fossils where 15 million to 20 million years older; these fossils came from the Precambrian period, a period thought to to be absent of life. Some of these fossils resembled primitive creature such as jellyfish and sponges, but the patterns found on some of the others matched absolutely zero living creatures. In these creatures, scientists found the first levels of biological organization and thus answered the
Scientists across various fields of studies with excellent academic achievements voice their unwavering belief in the theory of creation, and they depict multiple experiments and studies to solidify the validity of creationism. Evolution versus creationism is a battle that began long before today’s modern trials and protests, yet the same basic principles still exist. Creationism is as scientific as evolution, and evolution is as faith-based as
Darwin acknowledged this gap, and was unable to explain it himself and described this evolutionary event as an incomplete fossil record. He quoted “to the question why we do not find rich fossiliferous deposits belonging to these assumed earliest periods prior to the Cambrian system, I can give no satisfactory answer” (origin of species Darwin). Since the recognition of the geological boundaries, stratigraphic sections have been located throughout the world where pre-Cambrian sediments grade continually into the Cambrian, possibly voiding Darwin’s incomplete fossil record theory (Allen and Briggs, 1991). Other theories claim that the ancestors of the Cambrian organisms were small and soft-bodied, hence hard to fossilise in marine depositional environments (Fortey, 1981). Animal evolution that preceded the Cambrian explosion has been highly researched and some studies indicate by molecular diversification, comparative developmental statistics, evolution of oxygen transport proteins, phylogenic analyses of Cambrian fossils and biogeography suggest that the major specie clades diverged tens of millions of years prior to their first presence in the fossil record (Zhang et al, 2014b). The exact motivation has yet not been established, although there have been many hypotheses to what invoked the explosion in the fossil
In Darwin's Black Box, Michael Behe argues that evidence of evolution's limits has been right under our noses -- but it is so small that we have only recently been able to see it. The field of biochemistry, begun when Watson and Crick discovered the double-helical shape of DNA, has unlocked the secrets of the cell. There, biochemists have unexpectedly discovered a world of Lilliputian complexity. As Behe engagingly demonstrates, using the examples of vision, blood clotting, cellular transport, and more, the biochemical world comprises an arsenal of chemical machines, made up of finely calibrated, interdependent parts. For Darwinian evolution to be true, there must have been a series of mutations, each of which produced its own working machine that led to the complexity we can now see. The more complex and interdependent each machine's parts are shown to be, the harder it is to envision Darwin's gradual paths, Behe surveys the professional science literature and shows that it is completely hushed on the subject, obstructed by the elegance of the foundation