Joiner's Theories Of Suicide Analysis

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Firstly, in Joiner’s interpersonal theory of suicide, he explains why people have suicidal behaviour. He states that three things need to happen to be at a higher risk of suicide, the desire to die, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness; the desire to die is necessary (Joiner, 2005). Thwarted belongingness is the feeling of disconnect and alienation where one does not have connection with others; it is the feeling where one feels like no one cares and there is simply a lack of connection (ibid.). Those with more social belongingness like having family, friends and even social events like weddings, have a lower risk of CS as they feel like they are part of something. Perceived burdensomeness according to Joiner is the feeling that…show more content…
Firstly, he discovered that suicide rates depend on one’s integration in society, in other words, the level in which one feels accepted and connected to a group (Durkheim, 1951). Similar to Joiner’s ‘thwarted belongingness’, Durkheim says that those with a higher integration and belongingness in society have lower suicide rates than those who do not as they may feel not wanted and excluded (ibid.). However, less common but just like Joiner’s ‘perceived burdensomeness’, Durkheim states that those with very high integration also have high suicide rates. Moral regulation also plays a role in why one CS, this is because Durkheim discovered that those without a religion are more likely to CS than those who are actively in one. This is also because in some religions like Christianity, suicide is a sin. Low moral regulation is when one feels like there is no mission in life and social direction. On the other hand, high moral regulation also has an effect as everything is overregulated and hence, life becomes less rewarding (ibid.). For example, being in jail stops one from being free and every movement is controlled. Other factors that play a role are marriage where unmarried people have higher suicide rates than married people; military (linked to Joiner) where soldiers have higher rates than civilians; times of peace and war where times of peace have higher rates than times of war as war allows to put things into perspective; economic where economic instability have higher rates than prosperity; wealth where higher income have higher rates than the modest and poor; sex, as mentioned earlier, where men have higher rates than women and race where white have higher rates than African American (ibid.). Overall Durkheim’s theory has predictive powers in the fact that one can look at social and economic changes and predict
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