Juglone Lab Report

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Extraction of juglone, natural brown pigment, from walnut green husk (Juglans regia L.) by microwave and ultrasonic methods for hair dyeing application

Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the extraction of juglone from walnut green husk, the dyeing and fastness properties of dyed hair using husk extract as a natural dye and also, skin irritation test of this natural hair dye was examined on rat skin. Walnut green husk is one of the major waste products from the walnut production that could be valued as a source of natural compounds such as juglone. For more efficient and economical extraction of juglone from walnut green husk, microwave-assisted extraction was selected. the influence of some parameters (types of solvents,
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the optimum conditions were determined as acetone 70%, ratio of solvent to husk 10:1, power 180W, irradiation time 1 min. For improving efficient of extracted juglone, ultrasonic method in sequel microwave were also used which the content of extracted juglone from 16.02 in MAE to 27.19 (mg/100g wet husk) increased. When this extract for hair dyeing mixed with ascorbic acid (a developer), ferrous sulfate (a mordant agent) and Aloe vera extract (as a secondary mordant and also a cosmetic ingredient), gave dark-brown color on hair sample. The dyed hair exhibited appropriate color strength, a excellent morphology of coated hair surface with dye molecules, good color fastness to washing and daylight and no irritant property on rat. The…show more content…
Chemical bonds of the hair cuticle can be broken by developer, which causes deeper penetration of the dye molecules into the hair shaft and also more bonding of these molecules with hair proteins. Hydrogen peroxide is the most common developer or oxidizing agent, which can cause allergy while lime juice, ascorbic acid [2], baking soda, chamomile and rhubarb have been traditionally used as natural and household developers for hair bleaching and dyeing. Furthermore, mordants fixes the dye in hair fibers with dye-mordant-fibre interactions and improves hair color fastness. The most common mordants are metal salts such as; ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate and alum, but these mordants can cause pollution of heavy metal to environment [2, 13]. On the other hand, extracts of tea, coffee and pomegranate (contain tannins) [11], oxalic acid and lactic acid have been used as natural mordants while being safe to

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