It is one of Freud’s most remarkable contribution and is the essential to interpret his perspective of the behaviour and the issues of personality. The unconscious is made up of those impulses, ideas, beliefs, rationale, and events that are kept out of our realization as a defence against anxiety. Freud believed that majority human conduct is influenced by external forces. The things we do in everyday life is usually formed by these unconscious purpose and needs. The aim of psychoanalysis here is to make the unconscious conscious .The concept of the unconscious has deep significance for analytic group therapy.
Beck (2012), explain what separates psychodynamic theory from other theories and is unique and exclusive, is the concept of unconscious. Psychodynamic theories emphasize the importance of our unconscious mental life. In psychodynamic theory, emotions are data about the inner mental life, and it is in that perspective as the informants from the unconscious that emotions must be understood. Psychodynamics is a collective term for all the models and descriptions of the psyche that are primarily preoccupied with unconscious processes. Psychodynamic theory includes theoretical sub-disciplines about personality, development, groups, including social psychology, leadership, role, organization, and about phenomena such as resistance and relations.
Retrieved June 17, 2015, from https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/introduction-to-psychology-1/theoretical-perspectives-in-modern-psychology-23/cultural-psychology-116-12653/ ) In conclusion, the attraction of love between two people may be defined differently, but what is the same between both the Humanistic Perspective and the Social Perspective is that both of these empathize the qualities of the human, whether it be from the inside or from a social construct. Also, as cultural psychology goes, these behavioral tendencies are rooted and embodied within the culture, so they are not only shaped by their culture, but the culture is
It is that part of the id which has been modified by the influence of the external world (Freud, S. 1923). The ego is developed in order to mediate between the unrealistic demands of the id and the reality of the world we live in. It is the main component of personality that is involved in decision making. Whereas the id operates on the principle of pleasure, the ego works by reason. According to Freud, the ego works on the reality principle, figuring out realistic ways of achieving what the subconscious desires.
In his theory Jung differentiated between two types of unconsciousness: a collective and a personal one. He believed that archetypes are contained in the collective unconscious, which he understands as a type of knowledge all the people from a given group are born with, they are intrinsic to them. Despite not being aware the collective unconscious it dictates how people act in certain situations, mainly those related to emotions. For Jung the personal unconscious stores what could be conscious at any moment but is
J. Eysenck, who felt that in order to enhance our understanding of problem solving behavior, there is a need to assume acientific research methods and entirely reassess psychoanalytic theory. Eysenck put much effort in classifying human behavior rather than attempting to understand the individual. He attempted to classify human behavior using the concepts of trait and type (p.371). Eysenck 1967 (cited in Singh, 2005, p.126) “identifies the major component of personality features. For instance, people who are considered as an extrovert according to Eysenck’s extroverted type are believed to have charecteristics such as sociability, liveliness, and excitability,” according to Boeree (2006), Eysenck’s hypothesis points to the fact that extroversion/ introversion is the matter of inhibition and excitation in the brain itself.
Murfin compares Freud’s levels of the mind, based around structure or purpose, to an iceberg. It consists of three parts - the id, the ego and the superego. “The id, the part of the iceberg completely submerged in the unconscious, is driven by one’s libido and consists of the inherited components of one’s personality, including one’s sexual instinct. The second part of the iceberg, the ego, found in both the unconscious and conscious mind, can gain purpose from fulfilling the desires of the id. However, the ego–because it wavers between the unconscious and conscious only fulfills the desires of the id in ways that are socially acceptable.
By listening and observing them, he came to the conclusion that everything that is done, had an unconscious cause. A way to demonstrates Freud’s perspective is using the iceberg analogy, there are three parts that make up the iceberg, these parts include the id, ego , and superego. The id is basically the drive that doesn’t think the situation through, it is known as the pleasure principle, the ego is the drive that puts the situation into reality, it’s known as the reality principle, the superego is literally the brain of all three. Ironically, the superego is what judges what is right and wrong, also called conscience, an example would be me wanting to eat ice cream. My id yells for me to eat the ice cream right now, while my ego says that I can just eat a small bowl
He states that through the death of the author, the reader is born. Barthes relates this argument to Sigmund Freud’s theories on the two states of conscious, the manifest and the latent. According to Freud, manifest content is content that we as humans are cognitively aware of thinking and experiencing, whereas the latent content is the hidden meaning, the thoughts and desires that we supress in order to belong and co-exist in society. Barthes believes that the scriptor provides us with manifest content through prose and we, the readers, must gain access to its hidden layers, the latent content. It is the reader’s job to make art reach its full potential.
George Herbert Mead Borrowed from Cooley’s idea and developed it. Like Freud mead noted that a subjective and impulsive aspect of the self is present from birth. Mead called it the, I. a storehouse of culturally approved standards emerges as part of the self during social interaction. To mead, the objective social component of the self was referred to as, me. However, unlike Freud who focused on denial of impulse as the mechanism that generates the self’s objective side, mead centered on the unique human capacity to take the role of the other” as the source of me.