With these rights in place Hobbes deems it could only result in such bloody chaos. His descriptions of the state of war are very colourful. Hobbes believes human beings are driven by their passions, which are continuous, and people will seek to satisfy these passions. He sees humans seeking ‘power after power’ and this has no end, only in death, “so that in the first place, I put for a general inclination of all mankind, a perpetual and restless desire for power after power, that ceaseth only in death”. In the state of nature Hobbes depicts mankind to be selfish, riotous and have relentless ambitions.
In Spheres of Justice, Michael Walzer presents a philosophical work that does not support the nature of tyranny within its justice. It therefore explores the relationship between philosophy and tyranny. For Walzer distributive justice, and the theories that subsequently enact it, should find their foundations within a shared cultural meaning and understanding rather than an abstract framework that pays no mind to the society upon which it is enacted. Walzer’s purpose within Spheres of Justice can be described from the following statement: “I want to argue… that the principles of justice are themselves pluralistic in form; that different social goods ought to be distributed for different reasons, in accordance with different procedures, by
However, it is argued that there are many flaws to Rawls’ theory of justice, particularly in relation to the “original position” and the basic structure of society as the primary subject of justice. This will be argued in the first half of this essay. Another flaw of Rawls’ arises in relation to his two principles of justice, the second principle in relation to distributive justice and the individual’s right to self-ownership. This will be discussed in the latter half of this essay and reinforced by the works of Robert Nozick. A concise conclusion will then be made in relation to Rawls’ theory of justice and whether it truly revived the social contract
Unlike Hobbes, he thought the state of nature is characterized by reason. Moreover, he viewed humans as cooperative, social animals who want to be loved. He also believed that we are all created equal and have the right to life, liberty, health, and property, as they are our God-given rights. For this reason, he opposed monarchy and believed democracy was the best form of government. Furthermore, he believed that we all have the right to protect our God-given rights and not harm others regarding their life, health, liberty, and possessions.
This person will look at all his choices and pick the one where his rational desires are maximized. Rawls states in the article “the main idea is that society is rightly ordered, and therefor just, when its major institutions are arranged so as to achieve the greatest net balance of satisfaction summed over all the individuals belonging to
Out of these three great philosophers, they had varying different viewpoints on life. Thomas Hobbes however, he was rather pessimistic on his views of life. According to a McKay, Crowston, Wiesner-Hanks, and Perry (2013), “Hobbes held a pessimistic view of human nature and believed that, left to their own devices humans would compete violently for power and wealth” (p 492). Hobbes made it clear that he did not trust humans would make the best decisions for
Thomas Hobbes also had a significant impact on political thought (Sorell, 1996). For example these ideas that the people were selfish and brutal and also his ideas regarding the role of government and resulted in more investigations by other philosophers like John Locke. After the Revolution, the ideas of Thomas Hobbes also had considerable impact on Federalists in their arguments to adopt the Constitution (Hobbes, 1986). Hobbes believed that all the people should have equal rights and therefore no person should have more power as compared to others (apart from the King, who should have absolute power). As a result of the ideas of Hobbes, it was believed that the people cannot survive if a strong central government is not present to protect them.
Thomas Hobbes a 17th century philosopher who is best known for his political philosophy. The idea that nature is competitive, where morality only appears when we enter into society and it is backed up by the power of the sovereign. Hobbes define human nature as sensational because sensation is the source of all of our thoughts. We seek out pleasant experience and we avoid unpleasant experiences. For example death is an unpleasant experience where people are fearful losing their lives.
The first principle “requires equality in basic rights and duties, while the second holds that social and economic inequalities...are just only if they result with compensating benefits...particularly for the least well off” (Rawls, TJ p.13). Rawls, through the difference principle, is giving priority to the least well off of a society, and this would be Rawls’ distributive justice. He believes because every member of society is free and equal we are all entitled the benefits from society, and also have a society where the least well off are brought up to the highest degree. Rawls believes that social cooperation in a democratic society is the major component to making the most beneficial society for all. Rawls criticizes utilitarianism as focusing too much on society being a “forum for the coordination of activities,” while society is based off connections and the cooperation between citizens (Platz, Rawls p.1).
They would argue that the capitalist system is prone to unemployment of workers, inflation, and monopolies that causes inequality between members of society. Socialist strongly value cooperation over competition and strive to decrease poverty by distributing wealth in