There are differences between a juvenile court and criminal court in the United States. The focus of the juvenile justice system is on rehabilitation, in hope of deterring the minor away from a life of crime so they will not commit a crime again as an adult. In contrast, the criminal justice system focuses on the punishment and often bases the sentencing outcome on the criminal history of the youth. In a study conducted, Butler (2011) showed that the participants’ experience with adult jails and prisons show that those facilities may instill fear but are otherwise emotionally—and often physically—dangerous for youth. Many of the adult prisoners, who were minors when they enter the adult institution, felt they were forced to “grow
Today, I will focus on three types of special needs offenders and describe each one in depth – the juveniles behind bars, the gay and lesbian inmates and their sexuality and sexual correction behind bars, and then finish up with inmates under protective custody. Juveniles, most likely, will be testified in juvenile court and then end up being held in their respective juvenile corrections. That does not always happen though, they could end up being charged as an adult. Their age usually helps decide that –
About eighteen percent of youth referred to the juvenile court are held in detention, awaiting the outcome of their cases. Juveniles charged with drug or personal crimes are mostly likely to be charged With public order and property crimes less likely to get detention. Just as the use of detention has dramatically increased over time, informal adjustment of cases has declined over time, and formal hearings now account for the process in more than half of all juvenile cases. These two trends show the increasing formality of juvenile justice system in response. In cases where a petition has been filed, youth progress to the adjudicatory stage(equivalent to the criminal trial).If a youth is found guilty or plead guilty , he or she is adjudicated to felonious, or adjudication may be withheld contingent upon the youth completion of some program or sanction.
Those under the age of eighteen do not have the legal rights given to adults; since we do not treat them as adults, it does not make sense to sentence them as such. Biological studies also have found that teenagers make impetuous decisions and cause trouble because their underdeveloped brains lack the ability to look at future repercussions for their actions. Moreover, teenagers are still at an age that they are easily influenced by their environment. They succumb to peer pressure which can push them into doing crimes by the virtue of wanting to be accepted. Furthermore, they should be placed into the juvenile justice system, a safe environment in which allows young criminals to learn from the mistakes they make, rather than into adult jails, a place in which harden criminals could physically and mentally harm them.
Juvenile probation officers perform many functions in their role, therefore, they usually perform six very important functions; 1) conduct intake screening; 2) perform presentence investigations; 3) supervisor and monitor the juvenile offenders by ensuring that they adhere to their probation orders; 4) provide assistance to juvenile offenders placed on probation; 5) perform ongoing assessments on the needs of the juvenile offenders on probation; 6) the probation officers perform a variety of administrative, job-related tasks. Based on my reading of the text and in my opinion, I feel that number five of the six functions would be one of the most important functions of the juvenile probation officer job. (Elrod & Ryder, 2014). I believe that
“There were so many of us who would have to live with things done and left undone that day.” (Green, 214). Rather than looking at the profane things and banning the novel, the reader can look at the lessons and learn from this. Suicide and substance abuse are very widespread topics. Each day in the United States, there is an average of 5,400 suicide attempts among teenagers (True Facts).
“juvenile offenders cannot with reliability be classified among the worst offenders”: they are less mature, more vulnerable to peer pressure, cannot escape from dangerous environments, and their characters are still in formation (Juveniles Don’t Deserve Life Sentences). I understand why juveniles are less mature and not as aware as adults, but they should know the difference between right and wrong. If a juvenile is of the age 10 and up, than they should have the mindset to know what the right and wrong thing to do is. When a juvenile engages in an atrocious crime they should know why they did. Juveniles that commit heinous crimes, such as murder, should be sentenced to life in prison because their mind is developed enough to where they are conscious of what they are performing.
Inherently, these children may not know the implications of their actions and could need help that adult prisons do not offer. If juveniles do not get to choose what they are born into, then why do others have a right to prevent them from getting help that could potentially turn their lives around? The psychological help offered in juvenile prisons are good options to help out juveniles who were not given a positive home life. Gail Garinger, a woman versed in the lives of juveniles due to her involvement as a juvenile court judge and as the Massachusetts child advocate, argues in her article “Juveniles Don’t Deserve Life Sentences” that “The same malleability that makes [juveniles] vulnerable to peer pressure also makes them promising candidates for rehabilitation” (Garinger 94).
Although some believe that criminals do not deserve the same rights as civilians, the transition from the real world to life behind bars is taking enough rights away on its own. Prisoners should be protected from cruel and unusual punishment, sexual harassment and sex crimes, and poor living conditions. These crimes behind the walls of prisons make it difficult for inmates to adapt and feel safe. Their safety is being neglected, not only by other prisoners, but by the workers themselves (Hunter). Staff members get away with these crimes so easily; in return, they provide resources to the prisoners that are challenging to get such as cigarettes, extra telephone cards, and helping them pass drug tests.
Placing children and teenagers in jail results in negative effects rather than rehabilitation. The juvenile justice system in America is complex and varies from state to state, but the overarching purpose is to rehabilitate youth offenders. It processes nearly 1.7 million cases a year and overall handles most of them the same way (“Youth Involved in the Juvenile Justice System”). When those under age go to trial, their sentence often is decided by how likely they are to be rehabilitated and learn from their mistakes (“Juvenile justice”).
The authors conducted a study to see if recidivism would occur, if juveniles were to transfer to the adult court and facility. They compared their study with the those who were transferred and those that were detained in the juvenile justice system. The study found that 2,738 youths who were transferred to adult criminal court were more likely to re-offend. The study also found that 49 percent of the transferred offenders reoffended, compared with 35 percent of non-transferred. For those that committed violent offenses, 24 percent of those who were transferred reoffended, compared with 16 percent of those that did not transfer.
Chapter 1 Definition, Measurements and Process introduces the history of the juvenile justice system and discusses the issues surrounding the transitioning of a child to an adult. The chapter also covers challenges the juvenile system faces, how delinquency and crime are measured based on the Uniform Crime Reports, self-report studies, and victimization surveys. The measure of youths as delinquents and victims is also discussed, as is a typology of juvenile delinquents. In 1899, the first juvenile court was established. Its establishment was solely based on the principle that children develop differently than adults so they therefore need to be treated differently.
Teen Court Teen court also known as youth courts is a juvenile justice system program that permits teens to try and sentence their fellow peers for committing minor and status offenses. The main purpose of the teen court is to make young offenders accountable for their wrong doing by paying the price for their offences. However this system keeps first time offenders away from the Juvenile system and gives them a chance to change. In order for a youth to be considered to serve on a teen court, the young individual must be 8th to 12th grade with good academic standing, the teen must be nominated by teacher, parent or him or herself, an application must be filled up and signed with the parent’s approval.
The decision to try a juvenile as an adult varies drastically across the globe as each country or state has its own set of laws and principles regarding the approach taken to juveniles in the court system that differ from those of other countries (Juvenile Vs Adult). In countries like India and France, there are sometimes entirely separate courts (France’s being called Juvenile Assize) and certain amendments that allow for those aged 16-18 who have committed “heinous” offenses to be tried as adults (Singhl). Places such as Iran and the Middle East try everyone as though they are the same, so minors can receive equal trials and sentences as adults (Mostafaei). Considering there is a range of policy and court differences, and for the purposes