The study of Indian English poetry is incomplete without the study of women poets. In the poetry of Indian women poets of modern age, their silences speak more and better than the words do. The women poets in the post-independence India emphasise their feminine sensibilities vis-á-vis search for identity in a unique and creative way. Apart from the expression of self and identity, their poetry captures the moments of intense experiences of private life with all its uniqueness and immediacy. The confessional
She committed suicide after being haunted by feelings of “ill[ness], isolat[ion], and … despair” (VanSpanckeren 83) and after having an ongoing struggle with the ‘self’ and the ‘other.’ She was an eminent female poet of the 1960s whose poems mirrored the “personal” and “proto-feminist cry of anguish” (VanSpanckeren 83). Nassia Linardou claims that Sexton was considered “the high priestess” and “the Mother” (89) of confessional poetry. Her acclaimed talent emanated from her boldness to evoke newly-tackled issues such as mother-daughter relationship, suicide and sexuality. As a female poet, Sexton rebuilt her fragmented identity through her poems. Her poetry thrived on issues of the female incessant struggle, and her poems were “encoded with images of domesticity and motherhood – images which gender [her] poetry – and [her] employment of the first person pronoun” in her poetry (Crosbie 59).
The poem can be considered a blazon traditional sonnet although it presents the tradition in an unconventional way. The typical way a blazon sonnet presents itself is through the broken-down description of a woman’s qualities. Women are usually highly praised and they are made to appear so out of reach; they become unobtainable even by the poet themselves. Women are portrayed as a collection of objects rather than human which accentuates the idea that they are so unattainable because no woman like them actually exist. The idea that beauty is what defines, and what controls a man’s love for a woman, is not depicted in Shakespeare’s sonnet, My Mistress’ Eyes.
Here, Yeats attempts to preempt a shift in gender roles and the consequence this may have on cultural norms in society. Yeats presents to his readers “inherited generic norms of love poetry against feminist objections and demands” through the male voice Robartes (Cullingford, 92). Yeats does this through representing a dialogue between the male and his traditional values and the progressive feminist, highlighting their differences in opinion. The poem begins with the Robartes stating that a woman is most “wise” when she is “plain”, and free of any opinion (Albright, 223). The revolutionary aspect of this poem is demonstrated by the woman who questions Robartes saying “May I not put myself to college” (Albright, 223).
As Helen Cixous suggests, Gilman “breaks up truth with laughter.” (11) Although it was written hundred years ago yet it has so much relevance in the contemporary world. By strongly criticizing the culture and tradition of outside world, Gilman has brought this imaginary world with a feminist perspective. She has presented in her novel that, gender difference, suppression and oppression of women, sexual harassment, rape, will continue throughout the years. Gilman’s works are strongly embedded and connected with women like Women and Economics, Concerning Children, The home: Its work and Influence and many more. Herland depicts the breakdown of isolated society and expresses the changed ideas and the conflict between the outside world and their world.
The opening is full of darkness, anger and disgustingly dull images. However, it seems like she begins to realize her purity does not depend on her skin. She exclaims with confidence, “You may kill me with your hatefulness,/ but still, like air, I rise” (Angelou 23-4). At the beginning of the poem the author uses the word dirt instead of air. Now it seems as though she has washed away the impure thoughts of society and decided to be stronger and more hopeful.
In this poem she creates a brilliant, grotesque description of her “children” proving her mastery of words. It also must also be taken into account the era in which her poems were written. Ordinarily, in this period of history, it was not common to find an educated and well-versed woman such as Bradstreet. But why does she go to such great extent as to write a whole poem of the ugliness of her poetry? Considering the language used to describe her poetry; “ill-formed” “irksome” she must have written this poem in a moment of sadness and even anger.
Confessional mode of writing helps a female poet in the expression of her suppressed self and to regain her lost identity. As a confessional poet, Das exposes herself in some way or other in almost every poem that is why her poems often appear autobiographical. In the words of N V Raveendran, “The poetic experience in general is rooted in the individual poet’s personal background as well as the regional and social factors.”(Raveendran 2000 p. 28) The Aim of this research paper is to study the Confessional moods in the poetry Kamala Das. Keywords: Betrayal, Confessional, Love, Pain, Suffering. Confessional poetry representing the poets own circumstances experience and feelings, Kamala Das extends her poetry as a challenge against the
The period 1971-80 was a period of economic depression, growing number of women poets emerged, approving new associations and gaps. Though what became known as feminist poetry was discharged by an academy as hysterically partisan, in openly tackling sexuality, and taboos like lesbianism, abortion and the physical and emotional abuse of women, feminism helped to change what British women wrote poetry about. On the other hand political and literary differences between radical and liberal formalist and experimentalist, proved as divisive among poets as in society at large; remaining silent about the social tensions of the moment. The major literary events in this period include the celebration of the First International Women’s Day with a march in London and Liverpool, death of Stevie Smith, Phoebe Hesketh was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. In 1972 PN Review was launched , Wendy Mulfoed found Street Editions,Kathleen Raine receives W.H.Smith Literary Award, Molly Holden and Joseph Smith wins Cholmondeley Award, Liz Lochhead wins Scottish Arts Council Award, Virago Press launched, and International Poetry Festival inaugurated .
It we turn back the pages of the history of Indian women writing poetry in English we come to a halt at Toru Dutt. It was Toru Dutt (1856 - 77) who pioneered the Indian women’s English Literary tradition. Her work depicts archetypes of Indian womanhood such as Sita and Savitri, showing women in suffering, self –sacrificing roles, reinforcing conventional myths in a patriotic manner. Sarojini Naidu (1879 – 1949) was also a distinguished poet, famously known as Bharatiya Kokila (The Nightingale of India). Naidu’s poetry is lyrical and musical using many types of meter and rhyme and filled with rich imagery.