Kangaroo Mother Care Disadvantages

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Evaluation of the neonatal outcomes of the Kangaroo Mother Carein Iran; systematic review

Abstract
Kangaroo mother care’ (KMC) includes thermal care through continuous skin-to-skin contact, support for exclusive breastfeeding or other appropriate feeding, and early recognition/response to illness. Using kangaroo mother care is cost-effective, and has abundant advantages for mother and infant.

Introduction
Initial phase of the transition from the fetal to post natal neonatal period, the most important, most vulnerable and most stressful phase in human life. Therefore, care methods that facilitate better adaptation to balance the nervous system and behavior of infants with early postnatal environment, the attention placed. 1
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Providing a LBW or sick newborn infant with continuous SSC, 24 hours a day, is an optional alternative to incubator care.6When KMC around the clock is not possible, intermittent KMC (for limited periods such as one or two hours per day) is a good option, as this practice strengthens the mother– baby bond and facilitates breastfeeding.7, 4

The number of recognized benefits of KMC isexpanding as the method is practiced more widely.Apart from obvious popular appeal, KMC has psychological, physiological and clinical advantages.It is important to note that although KMC has not been shown to conclusively decrease infant mortality,it reduces morbidity without apparent short or longtermnegative effects.8, 9

Compared with conventional neonatal care, KMC can shorten the infant’s length of stay at the NICU.7, 4Decrease the infant’s need of incubator treatment and reduce the risk of hypothermia.10Further, the method may contribute to improved head growth7, 11and better weight gain.11KMChas also been associated with higher breastfeeding rates at discharge and up to six months.12During and after KMC, infants have shown a lower and more stable heart rate and more stable oxygen saturation.13,
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in their study showed the mean staying period in the KMC group was 7.9 and 10.6 in CC group which was statically significant differences between the two groups (P=0.03)37 also Mohammadzadeh A. et al and Godarzvand L. et al showed a significant longer duration of hospitalization observed in CC group [27.18±12.07 day vs. 16.24±10.04 day (P<0.001)]41, 44which was similar study by Gathewala(6.8± 1.3 day vs.3.56 ± 5.5 day in KMC).4 But Suman RP et al. and Nagai S el al showed didn 't significant difference in duration of hospitalization neonate between CC and KMC groups11, 63.
Heydarzadeh M et al. in his cross sectional study evaluated the effect of KMC performance on exclusive breast feeding in preterm infants at the time of hospital discharge. The group who practiced KMC, had more exclusive breast feeding at the time of hospital discharge than the mother who did not practice KMC (62.5% vs. 37.5%) with a significant difference (P = 0.00).60This result is similar with SumanRP11. He reported that mothers who had more KMC had more exclusive breast- feeding (98% versus 79%)48. Overall a Kangaroo Mother Care policy has been associated with major cost savings64.

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