Nonconsequentialism came from the work of Immanuel Kant, who is known to be the founder of critical philosophy. Markham (2007) described Kant as ‘the giant in philosophy’. Through his research and work, Immanuel Kant labelled himself a deontologist. According to Markham (2007), a deontologist is ‘a person who recognises that there are absolute moral prohibitions that must be applied consistently to all situations’. Different from consequentialism, people who tend to have the mind set of a deontologist believe that you should do your ethical duty, regardless of the outcome.
The voice of conscience acts as a moral sensor, which is triggered whenever we face an ethical behaviour and fires the alarm once the morality is breached. Utterly, It is up to our will whether to listen irresistibly to the voice that is what Kant calls it “moral predisposition” or mute it which consequently leading to immoral behaviour. The previous argument explains the moral law imposed by Kant. Furthermore, he emphasised that people are rational beings act according to their morals, he considers people as a moral agent and ought to act morally and willingly motivated by the
It is this theory which had the greatest impact in the philosophical discipline of morality. Kant established this theory based on his conviction that morality arises from rationality, meaning that all moral decisions are rationally supported. This is effective because it makes the categorical imperative unshakable by eliminating any grey areas. The categorical imperative can be broken down into two simple to digest maxims or categories. The first of these maxims is the maxim of universality.
In his famous work “The Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals” Kant tries to develop a moral philosophy which depends on fundamental concepts of reason and tries to show that while making moral choices we should use reason. Kant, as an Enlightenment philosopher, places all his confidence in reason. In the first chapter, we generally recognized that an action is moral if and only if it is performed for the sake of duty. Duty commands itself as imperative. There are two types of imperatives as hypothetical and categorical.
The superego almost seems to be outside of the self, making moral judgments, telling us to make sacrifices for good causes even though self-sacrifice may not be quite logical or rational. And, in a sense, the superego is “outside”, since much of what it tells us to do or think we have learned from our parents, our schools, .or our religious institutions. What the ego and superego tell us not to do or think is repressed, forced into the unconscious mind.
Immanuel Kant who was a moral philosopher came up with the theory of duty for the sake of duty where he states that one should do good for the sake of doing good, not because there is something to gain from it but for the will of doing good, this is not the same with human rights because human rights are there to govern people from doing what is wrong and unjust, they involve the emotional state of the person and they also have exceptions whereas Kant’s moral theory leaves no room for
He analyzes the moral obligations that exist and states that if someone performs a moral duty but also acts on one of the four natural inclinations then the meaning behind their actions are weaker and therefore less important. An action performed for moral duty without any tendency towards natural inclination hold the truest form of moral duty that we should all strive to perform for others in order to become a better society that is more understanding and respectful of the people around us. With Immanuel Kant’s ideas on moral duty and inclination we can continue to further analyze our actions and the actions of others that we see to gain the best perspective possible. Teaching moral duties without reason may be simple but I believe it to be detrimental in the long run as these types of actions are the glue that holds us all together with our social interactions, pursuit of knowledge and desire to
People have to act accordingly to their obligations regardless of the positive or negative outcome of their actions. According to deontologists, it is wrong to kill, to steal, to lie, and it is right to keep promises and to help people. One should not lie about anything even though that lie could save a lot of lives. In addition, one should not perform a prohibited action even though it could bring uncountable benefits to society (Kant’s Deontological ethics). Deontology is the opposite of consequentialism.
As William Ury states in his book, The Third Side: Why We Fight And How We Can Stop, “human beings have a host of emotional needs - for love and recognition, belonging and identity, for purpose and meaning to lives. If these are subsumed into one word, it might be respect.” Respect is an integral part of human nature. This is also proved by many philosophers.
Roth and his colleagues believe that in no circumstance can torture be used at all, “Torture is morally unjustified, because it “dehumanizes people by treating them as pawns to be manipulated through their pain” (Roth, Worden & Bernstein, 2005). However, were a absolutist faced with the need to make a
Immanuel Kant, 1724-1804, was a German philosopher who is considered to be a central figure in modern philosophy. Throughout his career Kant argued that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reasoning is the source of morality, that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment, that space and time are forms of our sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of our concepts of it. However, Kant is most noticed for his platform of alternative ethical approach known as duty. Also regarded as deontological ethics or deontology, it is the ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules, which is thought to be where the title of duty comes from. According to the theories placed by Kant, the rightness or wrongness of an action does not depend on their consequences, but rather if they maintain the ability to fulfil our duty.
The novel Parallel Journeys by Eleanor Ayer is a nonfiction story about two child during World War II. In chapter one Helen Waterford is introduced, she is a young jewish girl who has moved to Amsterdam to hide from the Nazis that are transporting all jewish people to concentration camps. In chapter two, a young boy by the name of Alfons Heck is introduced, he has just in rolled in Hitlers youth program. The story changes back to each of the characters and their families telling the story of how the jews lived and how Germans lived during World War II. When I picked this book out I knew very little about the people the book is about and the author.
Paper I – Spring ‘16 What has to be true about our actions for them to be right or wrong? Respond with reference to Kant and Bentham In an episode of the popular 90’s TV-series Friends named “The One Where Phoebe Hates PBS”, the characters Phoebe and Joey engage in a debate over the existence of self-less acts of kindness. Referencing the philosopher Immanuel Kant’s moral theory, Joey, claims that there is no such thing as a “selfless good deed” (“The One Where Phoebe Hates PBS”). Phoebe now sets out to disprove this theory and comes back having allowed a bee to sting her so “he could look cool in front of his friends” (“The One Where Phoebe Hates PBS”).