Kant's Response To The Enlightenment

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CANDIDE AND ENLIGHTENMENT In this essay, I will read Candide in the light of Enlightenment philosophy and also with reference to Kant's answer to the question “What is Enlightenment?” Although Candide (1759) and the short essay by Kant “What is Enlightenment?” were written during different decades of eighteenth century but both of them reflect the age of Enlightenment in their works. This essay is divided into two parts: Part I discusses about the age of the Enlightenment and Kant's essay on Enlightenment, Part II discusses Candide in the context of Part I where Voltaire’s views against optimism and his character Candide's journey towards the Enlightenment are discussed. I The Age of Enlightenment also known as the Age of Reason is a name given to the period of Western Civilisation that followed the Renaissance. The Enlightenment occurred roughly from mid of 17th Century upto the end of 18th century. In the words of M. H. Abrams, “The name Enlightenment applied to an intellectual movement and cultural ambience which developed in…show more content…
The philosophy of Enlightenment has been most famously summarised in Immanuel Kant's essay, “An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?” Kant's answer in 1784 to the question what is Enlightenment? Is that it is a “human being's emergence from his self-incurred tutelage” which is the inability to use one's own understanding without direction from another.” The immaturity is self-incurred when it is caused not by lack of mental capacity but by the lack of resolution. Kant urges each of us to refuse to remain under tutelage of others. In Kant's opinion, we must think and decide for ourselves. He writes, “I don't need to rely on a love which understands for me, a pastor who has conscience for
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