He believed in personal liberty, constitutionally limited government and the free market of ideas and goods. In fact, with his strong liberal views Hayek was not so optimistic toward the future of liberalism on the political scene (p.12). He stated that there is little space for those who promote liberalization of the society as well as the notion of a free market. That is so because such ideas and in some point actions are usually absorbed by strong powers which show no signs of liberty at all. Rather totalitarian views and planned socialism with the ideas of overall control of a state and a society.
Marx’s first criticisms are towards the concept of liberal democracy as defined by John Stuart Mill. Mill describes liberal democracy as a society in which the government promotes the common good of the citizens by recognizing the natural right of private property, the tendency towards market economies, and the equality in social and economic opportunities as well as in personal and civic liberties. (Mill, John Stuart. "On Liberty: Chapter 1.”). Marx believed instead that liberal democracy does not represent the best type of government since it does not correspond to a natural order but rather reflects a very human abstract view of society.
Critique of the Public Sphere Since the original appearance of Habermas’ Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere it has received a lot of criticism. Habermas’ analysis of the public sphere can be criticized for only focusing on the nature of the Bourgeois public sphere. He excluded the modern day sphere by exclusively talking about the Bourgeois public sphere, by doing this he underestimated the significance of the non-bourgeois sphere and its contribution to a rational-critical engagement with the world, “ The public sphere in Habermas’ sense is also conceptually distinct from the official economy; it is not an arena of market relations but rather one of discursive relations, a theatre for debating and deliberating rather than for buying and selling”. (Craig Calhoun, 1992, Pg. 111) Habermas speaks of only a single public sphere and does not take into account those that exist outside of the Bourgeois model.
The social contract theory explains that society was based on a “social contract” which involved people agreeing to give up some of their individual freedoms in order to live together under a system of laws and government. By accepting this social contract, man left the state of nature and entered political society. It has also been highlighted that governments do not get established on the basis of a social contract, but arise by either habit or force. Bentham therefore wished to overcome the theory of a social contract, in order to establish society and its laws on observable realities and utilitarian
What is alienation? “Alienation can only be grasped as the absence of unalienation, each state serving as a point of reference for the other” (Ollman 1976:131-2) Alienation is the process in which individuals have tendency to believe in the power of objects having the capacity to govern the activity of human beings.Karl Marx in the 1844 explained his idea of Alienation in the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts and later developed in his critique of political economy in Capital.Karl Marx divides society under two main classes which are the bourgeoisie (capitalist) and proletariat (labour). In this case alienation is the process in which workers lose control of their lives by losing control over their work caused by the modern industrial production under capitalist exploitation. Under the conditions of modern factory production workers have determinate tasks and these should be performed impeccably. They have to maintain the same rhythm of work and this cause monotonous environment and consequently workers have essentially lost control over the process of production, over the products which they produce, and over the relationships they have among staff members.
Napoleon tried to use France as a stepping stone to rise to more power. He only ruled for himself and did not take instruction from anyone but himself. His foreign policy is a disaster and his social policy is selfish. First of all, Napoleon’s social policy may appear to look good but underneath all of that is just selfish motives. Napoleon separated Church and state and made Catholicism religion of the majority.
Rockefeller Foundation removed Rivera's mural and left the sculpture on ‘God the Geometer' circumscribing boundaries of the universe with an inscription on the importance of stability. Stability is considered the highest corporate and capitalistic value and this clearly showed their stance (Linsey 57). The Rockefellers were capitalists and Rivera opposed this type of economy. Rivera was a socialist who envisioned a future where technological progress combines with social change. His views that he let be known on the mural were unacceptable to the Rockefellers who wanted to exploit technology to create capitalism (Linsey
For this their exists a goverment. A government is basically a body which acts as an intermediate between man and laws of nature and condemns those who go against the laws of nature.The Social contract exists on the belief that the government is formed for the benfits of the people and they aare the source of all political power enjoyed by the state. This theory has affected the foundations of various governments across the world including the American
The subject of a work of fiction written from a naturalistic premise is that the individual does not count. You cannot have a hero in the traditional sense. You cannot have a hero who dominates the action because the whole point of naturalistic fiction is that the environment, or force, however defined, transcends and dominates the individual. The environment, in other words, is your subject, individual human beings, your characters, become simply shadows of environmental force. The point is simple and obvious enough, but the American writer, responding to a sense of the fatality of society, wanted to write about society itself, the whole complex structure of relationships rather than about a single human being, a hero had no developed tradition at hand to assist him in the technical problem of organizing his fiction.
But we need not be provoked to reach the assumption that Nietzsche tried to justify the importance of a leader to command the people. On the contrary he deemed that the greatest danger in the contemporary world is existence of the leaders who stand aloof from the political world and instrumentally manipulate it for their own aims and ends. That the moral and ethical claims cannot provide the grounding for a society and leaders should break the barriers of slave morality to follow the strides of master morality, is a recurrent theme in Nietzsche’s opus because he argued that moral systems are based on and derive fro power relations, from politics itself. Tracy B. strong in her essay Nietzsche’s Political Misappropriation