Marxists had undervalued the vital importance of nationalism, the state and war, and the implication of the balance of power, international law and diplomacy for the structure of world politics. Marx and Engels, perceptive nevertheless they were about the march of capitalist globalization and growing economic disparities, could not have predicted. For instance, Lenin supposed that capitalism initiated national disintegration as well as extraordinary advances in globalization, but that does not essentially mean that Marxism suggestions the best description of how globalization and disintegration have outspread in cycle in modern times and particularly
Counter-hegemony can be achieved through the examination of the existing dominant discourses, uncovering the meanings, practices and fallacies rooted in the system, and then introducing rival discourses which would embody the interests and the claims of the subordinate groups. In this context, Gramsci defines the counter hegemonic project as “the concrete birth of a need to develop more universal concepts and more refined and decisive ideological weapons” (Hunt, 1990). Gramsci theorizes for a counter-hegemonic project that involves economic, political and ideological preparations before overthrowing capitalism and before winning power (Im, 1991). That is, the subordinate class should be prepared to start the struggle for emancipation and social transformation through standing firm against the circulated and prevailing discourses. However, it is worth noting that the leading group is not likely to compromise its superior privileged position and to allow a rise in status for the subordinate
Imperialism is a doctrine, conduct, tendency or system of those regimes that wish to expand their dominance to another or other territories through force (both military and political or economic). An imperialist state, therefore, wishes to impose itself on others. countries and exercise their control. These are nations that have great strength and do not hesitate to use it, either directly or indirectly, on the weakest. Imperialism emerged as a development and direct continuation of the fundamental characteristics of capitalism in general.
(2) The distinction from feudalism to capitalism demonstrates an essential element signifying the importance of the Revolution in Marxist views. Overall, Marxists liberals saw the revolution as an agent of progress, despite its flaws, such as the Terror, Marxism writing this off as the external elements of a political, social, and economic upheaval. Its use of economic theory and sources provided the fundamental underpinnings of Marxist argument. While the Marxist theory of the French Revolution was the foundation of the historiography, marking its significance, it became upended by the Revisionist approach in the 60’s. This shift to Revisionism pushed the majority of the Marxist
Take North Korea as an example, the farmland and food production are under the control of the government. In modern usage, it is written with a capital C and aims to overthrow the capitalist order; on the other hand, the capitalist conditions gave rise to modern Communism. It wants to revolutionise by establishing a classless society, which everyone is equal. In other words, Communism and Socialism do have something in common, which is the objective— eliminating private ownership and the bourgeoisie. Furthermore, they also use the same symbol, which is hammer and sickle.
Moving on to the idea of nationalism, Ernest Gellner (1997) understood nationalism as a product of industrial society. He defines nationalism as “primarily a political principle, which holds that the political and national unit should be congruent” (Guibernau and Rex 1997: 52). Nationalism, Gellner says is either a product of feeling of anger when the principle discussed above is not fulfilled or a product of feeling of satisfaction aroused by its fulfilment. Therefore, “nationalism is a theory of political legitimacy” (Guibernau and Rex 1997: 52). Gellner justifies the repercussions of the idea of “nationalism is a theory of political legitimacy” by discussing how the political effectiveness of national sentiment impairs the sensibility of the nationalists to realise the wrong committed by the nation.
Further, colonialism set into motion exploitation of nations of the global south for the benefit of nations of the global north, and even upon decolonization, with the optimistic idea of independence, imperial powers set up a system to where the decolonized nations were still dependent on them and continued the abuse of the global south nations and their resources for the economic gain, and that system sticks with us to this day. This paper will explore the impact then and now of colonialism on poverty and development in the world. To begin, colonialism created a standard that informed the genesis of different social hierarchies. This happened mainly, because colonizers set their way of living and their societies as the standard of which to reach to be developed and/or successful. For example, with colonialism came the standard of dress, which Jean Comaroff discusses, and was used to separate the cultured from the uncultured societies.
In the source, the man contains collectivist ideals, explaining that a laissez-faire economy causes problems within the working class. The profit that comes from the labour of the workers goes towards the capitalist and leaves the workers with little money and bad working conditions. This significant inequality will invoke all of the working members to gather together and cause a revolution. The restructuring will create a government with a socialist ideal, meaning that everyone is set out to do jobs according to their ability and they will be provided for according to their needs. These beliefs align with the philosopher Karl Marx, known as the father of communism who promoted an egalitarianism way of thinking.
It means that capitalism eviscerates liberalism and creates neoliberalism which is technical rationality for its own purposes. Capitalism sees us as a quantities, now we measure the value of our lifes as quantities (money, interests,likes) rather than qualities. Neoliberalism not only harms the substance of the democracy but also devalues the human body and soul by seeing the humans as a quantities. We are not political animal anymore that negocicate, deliberate, compromise like Aristo once said, we are now economic animal that try to buy politics with
Colonialism is when a country conquers and rules over another region by means of exploiting the resources of the conquered country for the benefit of the conqueror. Imperialism means creating an empire expand into the neighboring regions and expanding its dominance far. The term Colonialism is derived from the word “Celere” which means to “inhabit” while Imperialism was derived from the word from the word empire, it described an imperial government that was