This sociological study will analyze the problem of commodity fetishism in American consumer culture. Karl Marx’s theory of commodity fetishism is a major problem in the United States due to the inability of consumers to see the intrinsic value of a commodity. American consumer culture tends to become trapped in the “magical qualities” of a product, which makes them unable to understand the object as it was made by a laborer. This abstraction of the commodity is part of Marx’s analysis of capitalist products that is separated from the labor and become valuable objects in and of themselves. This is an important sociological perspective on commodities, which creates an irrational consumer culture in the American marketplace.
The world needs innovative thinkers who are risk takers. According to Ben Wielder, “... the social pressure for students to pursue ‘lower-risk trajectories’ in their career choices will lead to less innovation in the future” (Wielder). This cannot be true for college provides many risk factors; unemployment, student loans, and debt. Obtaining a degree results in an ability to focus and become flexible in a changing world. From the words of Michael Roth, these qualities “...make for intelligent, and sometimes courageous risk taking for critical assessment of those risks” (Roth).
The idea of socialism and communism may be slightly unrealistic and challenging to implement but in a utopian society, Marx’s view of the political structure is ideal. Arendt argues that there is no place for poverty in politics but Marx makes the point that poverty must be eliminated first so that politics can flourish. The only way to eliminate poverty is through the political system and the overthrow of the elite. As long as there is economic oppression, freedom is not attainable for every citizen. The separation of economics and freedom is unrealistic because money controls the actions of the people.
Thus there is the alienation of the worker in the capitalist economy; the worker lacks control over the' disposal of his products, since what he produces is appropriated by others, so that he does not benefit from it. It is the core principle of the market economy that goods are produced for exchange; in capitalist production, the exchange and distribution of goods are controlled by the operations of the free market. The worker is alienated in the work task itself: if the product of labour is alienation, production itself must be active alienation; the alienation of activity and the activity of alienation. The work task does not offer intrinsic satisfactions which make it possible for the worker ‘to develop freely his mental and physical energies ', since it is labour which is imposed by force of external circumstances
Amongst other notions, such as habitus, field and symbolic violence, Bourdieu developed the theory of capital, which he divided into four forms of capital, cultural, economic, social and symbolic (Wacquant 2007, 268) in order to explain the “realities of social inequality” (Gauntlett 2011). Regarding the notion of cultural capital, which to some extent is based on Karl Marx’s capitalistic approach when describing class struggle, Bourdieu mentions the “scarce symbolic goods, skills and titles” (L. Wacquant 2007, 268) that a part of society possesses. In fact, the elite detains cultural knowledge that they use in order to maintain their status in society, and keep their position above the working-class. Bourdieu also emphasizes how this scheme is reproduced within education, and thereby how social hierarchy not only occurs, but is also conserved (ibid, 262). Indeed, Bourdieu assesses that the educational system replicates the social inequalities that rely within society, which undeniably favors students from upper-class families.
This statement is based upon the belief that man’s nature determines how he acts. The original settlers spoke of man’s nature in their writings such as “On Liberty” by John Winthrop which spoke of how man is corrupt due to his nature (PR pg. 6). The mindset of the time suggested that the character of man was formed by his nature just as animals who do act out of instinct. Government was formed out of necessity to maintain order among men so that they may pursue “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”(PR pg.
There is a debate between different sources on whether or not students should be getting paid for good grades. The issue is that people are being influenced by others who all agree with the claim that students should be getting paid for good grades. Although there are many claims as to why students should not be paid for good grades. One being that students should simply want to learn for themselves and their own growth. Another reason is that children would be working for money, not education when it should be the other way around to later on in life get good money and a good job.
And thus, capitalism is born. Franz Kafka uses Gregor’s alienation in The Metamorphosis to highlight and condemn the values of a capitalist society—one in which one who cannot contribute to the economy through labour is worthless—and suggests that a person is valuable and worthwhile by simple virtue of humanity, not based on how well they can play the game of capitalism: we all have wings. Kafka juxtaposes Gregor’s mindset
When the surrenders this rights to liberty, he gains the right to civil liberty which serves the general will. Civil liberties allow man to possess the tile to property. The right to life and death is exercised when man, who is part of the sovereign community, overruns political laws used by the state to issue pardon to some people who have sanctions of death issued on their lives. On the issue of strength in state of nature existence, the social contract allows a transmutation where strength is to be transformed to right and ‘obedience’ is transformed to duty. This ensure that the strongest persons remains the master in a civil society (book I page 2), while the weak have an opportunity to grow as well.
Punishment is decided by the sovereign. The sovereign acts in the name of the general interest of the civil society. Man joins the civil society to live in peace which is not possible in the state of nature. As previously stated the sovereign, the Leviathan is granted with extremely strong power. The covenant gives legitimacy to the absolute power of one person.