Alienation is the separation of an individual from others and the feeling of lack of involvement and pointlessness (Marsh, 1996). According to Marsh (1996), Marx saw alienation as a central feature of capitalism. Workers are alienated from their work because their activity is competitive rather than cooperative and above all, it is controlled by someone else (Marsh, 1996). Human alienation’s increase reaches its height in a capitalistic society when the gain of capital and the demand for profit dominate all other requirements (Haralambos and Holborn, 2008). This is where we see that capitalism is based on the exploitation of the proletariat workers by the bourgeoisie (Mandel, 1976).
Without private property, workers or laborers would not also exist. What does alienation means? Alienation is a condition of workers in a capitalist economy, resulting from a lack of identity with the products of their labor and a sense of being controlled or exploited or simply being estranged of oneself. According to Fall (2007), to be alienated from something is to lack wholehearted identification with it and instead to regard it as strange or alien and perhaps as an obstacle in one 's way or as menacing to oneself. Private property ownership arises and as it arises owners seek workers to grow and earn profit.
However, the presence of the capitalist mode of production leads into "alienated labour" which presents a challenge to man's species-character. In accordance with the capitalist mode of production, it is important to discuss private property as it is an important aspect of the mode of production. Marx explains that the society,
263). This quote indicates the extent to which the government is influenced by the Bourgeoisie and how their interests overshadow those of the working class. Therefore, the role of government in Bourgeoisville is one where the interest of the working class
The Marxist methodology uses economic and sociopolitical inquiry and employs that to the critique and analyse the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change. Capitalism according to Marx is a mode of production based on private ownership
Karl Marx and Max Weber both agreed that capitalism generates alienation in modern societies, but the cause for it were both different. For Marx it is due to economic inequality in where the capitalist thinks that the workers worth nothing more than a source of labour, that can be employed and dismissed at will. This causes the workers to be dehumanised by their jobs (in the past, routine factory work and in the present-day, managing demands on a computer), which leads to the workers finding slight satisfaction and feeling incapable of improving their situation. It was noted by Marx four methods on how capitalism alienates workers. The first, is alienation from the function of working.
Karl Marx’s key tenet as to inequality is capitalism in his eyes defines one’s social class having a direct influence on one’s life experiences and life chances. The problem with capitalism is that is distorts the structure and meaning of the work process, with negative consequences for society as a whole and especially for workers. The distortion comes from several characteristics basic to the capitalist mode of economic organization: private property, surplus expropriation, the division of labor, and the alienation of work. Private property is a social activity, requiring groups of people working together to create things. Private property is the byproduct of division of labor.
A result from the lack of identity with the products of their labor and a sense of being are controlled or exploited (en.oxforddictionaries.com). Marx asserts that capitalism is the root cause
The latter consists of the base structures needed for the said societies production and operation; structures such as transport, energy and healthcare are part of the infrastructure. Institutions such as the justice system, military and family, among others, make up the superstructure. Marx viewed the 'state' as being in a relationship with society as one of control and subservience, respectively, therefore creating conflict. In Marx's theory of the state, he postulates the terms of mode/means of production, where the labour force are oppressed by the elite and owners of the production. He conferred that there were different stratifications, which formed economic bases, creating an ideological superstructure which consisted of juridical and
Karl Marx introduced the theory of class struggle during the industrialisation period that emphasised on one’s financial status. However in this contemporary society, Marx’s monolithic theory fails to encompass other aspects of social life. Building upon Marx’s theory of class struggle, Pierre Bourdieu sets out to rethink the factors involved in the stratification of classes. The addition of cultural capital to economic capital was amongst the many capitals Bourdieu suggested in determining the class of an individual in this society where ‘capital’ is interpreted as a “set of actually usable resources and power” (Bourdieu, 1979, p.114) that allows one to invest and gain returns. Economic capital is wealth and income one accumulates, while cultural