the first part will discuss the principles of modernity in General . the second part will discuss the technology in industry and the workers conditions after the industrial revolution. The third part will discuss the technology in industry through the case study in German. The last part will discuss the workers conditions in capitalist society and the child labor . this paper will use a part of Marx 's theory about capitalism .
Developed in the 19th century by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels was a theory called Marxism. In dictionary terms one can say that Marxism is “a system of economic, social, and political philosophy based on ideas that view social change in terms of economic factors.” (Business Dictionary) But what is Marxism? Let’s look at it this way that if a theory ignores the economic realities of human culture then it is misinterpreting it. For Karl Marx; Historical Materialism was the driving force in society which was a notion involving the distribution of resources, production, material gains and such matters. Therefore, for Marxism attaining and maintaining economic power is what fuels all political and social motives of people.
Class struggles are a fundamental part of human history: The idea behind this according to Marx is that history is a series of stages, defined by their mode of production and the struggle between classes: "The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." According to Marx, the current historical stage is the capitalist historical stage. This is the conflict between the bourgeoisie (middle class) and the proletariat (working class). This theory is supported by the historical stages preceding the capitalist historical stage which can easily be defined by their modes of production and class struggle, or lack thereof. For example, before the existence of civil society, there were no class struggles.
[ J. Elster, An Introduction to Karl Marx, (Cambridge, 1986), chapter 5, p.79.] Through history, society has managed to arrange and rearrange itself into complicated class structures. For example, the medieval era presented a feudal system, with feudal lords, guild masters, merchants, apprentices and serfs, which according to Marx’s modern bourgeoisie society is a by-product of the feudal society. The normative concept of exploitation, therefore as Marx speaks of it in the manifesto can be understood by its two distinct
Comparison of Marx and Weber for their approach about state and society: Max Weber is one of the philosophers able to explain economic systems such as capitalism. He was born in Germany in 1864 at that time there were a dramatic change in Germany in terms of industrial so there were a transitional German period and that influenced by those changes happened. Max Weber has a specific ideology about state and society. In constant, Karl Marx was a sociologist who were born in Germany in 1818, his idea and ideology about state and society are revolutionary. In addition, he was influenced by Communist party and he worked as a journalist he wrote a number of books and articles about capitalism, state, and society.
The most well-known and important theories of class are those developed by Karl Marx and Max Weber. Marx and Weber contributed to sociology in many different ways. A significant element is their diverse approach to social class. Marx put great importance on class, which he observed as an impartially given trait of the economic structure of society. He sees the primary split between the owners of capital and the workers who did not own capital.
He was the founder of rationalization. He believed that rationalization was a central problem in this world and the power of ideas shapes and changes society. Members of preindustrial societies embrace tradition. To him Industrial societies describe by rationality. Rationalization is historical changes from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought (societies differ in how people think of world).
In the classic example of historical materialism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that all of human history is the result of conflict between classes, which evolved overtime in accordance with changes in society’s mode of production. Conflict can take many forms and involve struggle over many different types of resources including status. However, formal conflict theory had its foundation in the analysis of class conflict and the example of the owner and the tenant can be understood in terms of class conflict. In class conflict, owners are likely to have relative advantaged over non owners. In a nutshell, the theory posit that stratification holds that inequality is harmful to society because it creates a fixed system of winners and losers.
Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim both displayed very differing views on the division of labour, and they each have a different proposal on how a society should be ordered. In this essay, I will be highlighting on how Marx believed in a classless society, and how Durkheim believed in structural functionalism, where a society will adjust to achieve a stable state. Furthermore, I will be relating both of their views to my home country Singapore, and why Durkheim’s theory of structural functionalism will be more applicable to the society of Singapore. Karl Marx was a great influence for many, including renowned leaders such as the former leader of Russia, Joseph Stalin. Karl Marx first pointed out his ideas about a classless society in the famous pamphlet Communist Manifesto in 1848.
Adam Smith, David Ricardo or Karl Marx are known for many as the pioneers of contemporary economies. Their Work and researches were the bases of most of nowadays economic models used by countries around the world. Adam Smith, David Ricardo and their followers were labeled as the classical economists when later on Karl Marx and his followers were labeled as the Marxists. These two economic schools were some of the biggest in history, but yet differed in many ways. Through this paper, we would discuss the says of the Classical and Marxism schools concerning their views on wages, their different opinions about the theory of value, their sides about capital accumulation and finally the different point of view of the schools regarding the diminishing returns.