Weber is redefining capitalism or at the least the essence of capitalism that he saw as the natural evolution of ascetic Protestantism. Weber’s use of the term ‘capitalism’ along with ‘religion’ is somewhat problematic and has created much debate, when applied to the interpretation of the origins of modern western economy. For Weber, capitalism is “identical with the pursuit of profit, and forever renewed profit, by means of continuous, rational, capitalistic enterprise. For it must be so: in a wholly capitalistic order of society, an individual capitalistic enterprise which did not take advantage of its opportunities for profitmaking would be doomed to extinction.” (xxxii) I think that Weber narrows the definition of capitalism and presents the capitalistic spirit as a limited concept. Throughout his writings, He judges modern capitalism as rational and anything irrational to be not capitalism.
[ J. Elster, An Introduction to Karl Marx, (Cambridge, 1986), chapter 5, p.79.] Through history, society has managed to arrange and rearrange itself into complicated class structures. For example, the medieval era presented a feudal system, with feudal lords, guild masters, merchants, apprentices and serfs, which according to Marx’s modern bourgeoisie society is a by-product of the feudal society. The normative concept of exploitation, therefore as Marx speaks of it in the manifesto can be understood by its two distinct
Marx argued that there are two classes of people that exist in society, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie refer to the upper class that own the means of production and whose central concern is the value of property. On the other hand, the proletariat describes the working class wageworkers in a capitalist society. Marx argued that the bourgeoisie simply exploited the proletariat, and the physical labor produced by the proletariat generated more wealth for the capitalist, leaving laborers under payed and machine-like. During this process, Marx believed that through this system of mass production, laborers were stripped of individual imagination and as a result, left individuals feeling alienated to their own emotions and erotic feelings in order to maximize production and wealth.
Religious beliefs and values of primitive society gave meaning and significance to people. The modern world, as Weber thought, was transforming human beings into merely cogs and bureaucratic machines, trapped in an “iron cage” of bureaucratic rationalisation- not as complex human beings with sensibilities and souls (Lippmann and Aldrich, 2001). “Specialists without spirit, sensualists without heart” (SAGE, 2004 pp.180) as Weber expressed, reinforces the loss of humanity in our “iron cage”. The “iron cage” is reflective of Weber as a pessimist of progression of the modern world. His pessimism indicates that, all the best intentions in the world may not necessarily produce good outcomes (Weber, 1905/1930).
He studied law and philosophy at university in Federal Republic of Germany. he has virtually no influence on the event of early social science that was dominated by the evolutionists, notably social Darwin¬ists. Marx's ideas have had a profound impact on world politics and intellectual tho'. He was one among the primary social scientists to focus in the main on class. His main target class was that one's class set one's social life.
This can be seen through the increasing commercialization of the modern world and the expansion of interest in movements advocating for a classless society. Communism is still applicable to the modern ways of life even though these ideas were first written down in the 19th century. Many people within modern society are able to look at this work by Marx and relate to it on many levels. Those who work in harsh conditions often feel as if they are apart of the proletariat. Marx was able to create a new idea that would change the world forever.
Marx, through his communist manifesto, believed that “modern industry has converted the little workshop of the patriarchal master into the great factory of the industrial capitalist”, taking society from one epoch of social stratification and forced labour to Capitalism, under which the inequality between the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat grew and became more evident. On the other hand, Durkheim saw industrialisation as a mainly positive occurrence which, along with the division of labour, provided the necessary institutions are in place to maintain it, as it causes society to change and develop and thus “civilization develops because it cannot fail to develop” (Durkheim: 1933: 337). Yet despite differences in their views of the effect, both Marx and Durkheim used the process of industrialisation to explain how society progresses and how society is held together or broken, with Durkheim, in particular, looking at just how much the structure of society changes as the division of labour progresses (Morrison:
From these he drew conclusions about the general concept and social laws to explain and get the world to understand.He has a clear historical perspective and refers to many philosophers and other researchers in the field. Weber looks for social factors as declaration and he shows that society affects the individual to a certain way of thinking and behavior patterns without the individual need to be aware of it, but he makes it a more relative approaching than Marx. If we take Weber's theory and applied to today we can get a stronger understanding in what his theory actually meant. If we take a high-school teacher as an example, we can firstly state that he or she is an employee and does not own the school he/she works in. However, the teacher could have more status (power) in both the school community and outside,compared to a plumber, who earn more money and has its own