"What the bourgeoisie, therefore, produces, above all, is its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable" (Marx, 1848). Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels famous work ‘ The communist manifesto’ is on of the most influential doctrines on the theory of Marxism. Marxism, as concluded from Marx and Engels is a conflict theory, which means that it believes that society is based on inequality and unequal distribution of power and wealth. The Marxist methodology uses economic and sociopolitical inquiry and employs that to the critique and analyse the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change.
Marxism is a socio-political ideology proposed by Karl Marx main ideology of Marxism is that the wealth has to be equally divided among the society for that Co-operative company instead of corporate company 's can be accepted that means the wealth collected or gained by the company is not targeted towards the owner of the company instead it is divided equally among all the co-operative. Marx explains history in terms of class struggles. Basically 'the haves and 'have not’s '. For Marx this class struggle is a natural process. Conflicts are usually resolved in the long run even if these conflict results in violence.
Generally class struggle means conflict between the upper class and lower class the idea of Class struggle is long-used mostly by socialists and communists, who define a class by its relationship to the means of production such as factories, land, and machinery. From this point of view, the social control of production and labour is a fight between classes, and the division of these resources basically involves conflict and causes damage. Societies are socially divided based on status, wealth, or control of social production and distribution, and in this division of class conflict arises. It is important to know Karl Marx theory on class struggle; he viewed the structure of society in relation to its major classes, and the struggle between them. His aims were to revolutionize the concept of work through creating a classless society built on control and ownership of the means of production.
He believes that historical development must be understood in light of the historical developments of modes of production (Chigora & Ziso, 2010, 90). Therefore, understanding contemporary political and social issues requires understanding the current mode of production: the capitalist system. Every mode of production knows a systematic abusing class and abused class (landowners and serfs, slave owners and slaves, …), resulting in class struggle (Pease, 2014, 80). In the current capitalistic mode of production, those would be respectively capital owners, or the bourgeoisie, and wageworkers, or the proletariat. For Marx, every mode of production contains contradictions that lead to their collapse.
For example, as Karl Marx and Max Weber believed that social conflict was intrinsic to the organization of capitalistic societies, Émile Durkheim found it to be abnormal and damaging to industrial production. As well, just as Weber was cautious in terms of a revolution, Marx embraced the fast-paced movements such as collective protest as it unified the working class and defined their struggles. In conclusion, the sociologists helped reflect a concern for the consequences of modern life through their influential philosophies of the working class during industrialism, and their ideologies on the social constraints of
As indicated by Marx, business people misuse specialists for their work and don 't share the products of these works similarly. This abuse is the thing that permits the owning classes to command politically and to force their philosophy on the laborers of the world. Max Weber refined Marx 's conflict theory (Fish, 2005). Weber expressed that more than one conflict over property existed at any given minute in any given society, which is more nuanced than Marx 's theory that the main battle of significance was that amongst proprietors and laborers. Weber incorporated an enthusiastic part of conflict too: Feminist theory is one of the real contemporary sociological theories, which examines the status of women and men in society with the motivation behind utilizing that information to better women 's lives.
He puts emphasis on our understanding that ideology functions differently, and with this in mind, we may begin to recognise the complex intervention that lies between culture and ideology. He sees ideology as a ‘human perception of the “lived experience” of human existence itself.’ Ideology’s function is basically to imitate relationships between the society and their ways of producing daily life. Nowadays, a dominant ideology is easily developed which further serves to fortify the already existing economic organization of the civilisation. Thus relations of production are reverted to relations of capitalist exploitation. Evidently, there was a constant class struggle within ideology and this led to a process of ‘contention’ amongst the different classes.
To Hegel, ethical life has three components which are civil society, family and government. Those components make understanding freedom and articulation of reason at higher stage easier. However, Marx’s critique of Hegel’s philosophy of the state allowed him to see that both civil society and the state were alien to a truly human life, which at that time he called ‘true democracy’ . (Smith) Economic bases is significant for social analysis of Marx. Productive forces and relations of production are the key concepts of his analysis.
In instances where unions successes in securing economic gains are limited, workers look towards adopting political action, and Hyman believes that this can lead to workers challenging the capitalist structure of class domination (Hyman, , p. 8). While some consider unions can benefit broader social change, Lenin believes unions embed themselves within capitalism because they are organized as wage-earners rather than producers and as sellers of their labour power (Hyman, , p. 12). With the structure of unions becoming bureaucratic, Trotsky believed in the thesis of incorporation, wherein union leaders authority over their members assist in the organization and controlling of workers (Hyman, , p. 18). Although the goal of unions is to acquire more economic power for their members, the characteristics of wage-labour and bureaucracy
Here the class theory has obtained pivotal position in the sense that the Marxist concept of stratification of the society into two competing and mutually hostile classes provides the basis for the evolution of historical materialism. It is indeed a philosophy of great ideological depth, despite its criticisms and shortcomings. This paper is an attempt to discuss some aspects of the Marxian view of the class theory, how it was supplemented and developed by other Marxist scholars and its relevance in the contemporary world along with criticisms, debates and discussions. The Marxian view of Class and Class Theory as a Conflict Theory “The history of all hitherto existing society is the histories of class struggle” claimed Marx in the Communist Manifesto in 1848. Well!