Marx is known to be the person behind the theory of Marxism and communism and one of the most influential socialist thinkers at his time. He was a German Philosopher, Economist, Sociologist, Historian, Journalist and mostly known as a Revolutionary. Marx is basically known as the co-author of the pamphlet titled “Manifesto of the Communist Party” with his comrade Frederick Engels. On the other hand, a new religion has arisen which proclaims that History is God and Karl Marx its chief prophet. Karl Heinrich Marx was born on May 5, 1818 in Trier, Rheinish Prussia, where he received a classical education.
Introduction Karl Heinrich Marx (1818 to 1883) was one of the greatest geniuses to have graced human philosophy, economics, political science and other social sciences. So great has been his impact on the social sciences that Marxism as a way of thinking transcends the borders of discipline and thought. Born in an environment mired the ravages of 19th century capitalism and the rise of the industrial proletariat, Marx presented to us his version of class theory which, despite its many drawbacks, continue to mesmerize us, even today. The class theory as propagated by Marx provides an alternative way of thinking and looking at things in almost every sphere of life. Here the class theory has obtained pivotal position in the sense that the Marxist
Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx both had interesting theories about societies. Durkheim and Marx found it important to understand society integration. Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx have played profound roles in the understanding of Sociological theory. Sociological theory can be used to explain many things including how society is held together. Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx had different ideas on what held society together but in ways their ideas were also similar.
Karl Marx (1818-1883), the significant revolutionary thinker, historian and philosopher of the 19th century is best known for his critique of capitalism. As a philosopher, his ideas became very relevant at that time due to the rise of industrialization in Europe. Marx began to become politically and socially active as he was influenced by the thoughts of Hagel, which started to shape his political philosophy. His activities as a thinker produced many significant works, which historians categorize into three different parts, his writings in the early years, mid years, and later years. Historians distinguish between the different time periods of his writings because it shows the philosophical progression in his work.
However, we now know this to be false because citizens in capitalist countries such as America enjoyed a higher standard of living than communist countries such as the Soviet Union ever had. While Marx thought his ideologies would be applicable in the real world, they only looked good on
[ J. Elster, An Introduction to Karl Marx, (Cambridge, 1986), chapter 5, p.79.] Through history, society has managed to arrange and rearrange itself into complicated class structures. For example, the medieval era presented a feudal system, with feudal lords, guild masters, merchants, apprentices and serfs, which according to Marx’s modern bourgeoisie society is a by-product of the feudal society. The normative concept of exploitation, therefore as Marx speaks of it in the manifesto can be understood by its two distinct
Durkheim also believed that modern societies are going to develop a new way to build and reinforces social norms and also work with a shared sense of affiliation. Durkheim goes on to suggest that the social cohesion could be a result from action of occupations groups. Occupational groups could replace the normative functions that were once exercised by institutions such as religion, local community, and the family. Relations between the occupational groups would go on to be an economic, in this sense it would go on to work as one to reach agreements about the conditions of labor and
Marx argues that the division of labor results in alienation, and he focused on the social inequalities between two social classes. Unlike him, Durkheim claims that the division of labor is not necessarily bad for the society, it creates a feeling of solidarity between group members. Marx is quite concerned with how people relate to the most fundamental resource of all, their own power of labor and the problems of alienation. The deprive of the ownership of their labor and their own thoughts, according to Marx, causes the alienation of workers from their nature and consequently causes conflicts between the two social classes. In his opinion, the division of labor and class inequality will eventually bring about the social stratification.
During this process, Marx believed that through this system of mass production, laborers were stripped of individual imagination and as a result, left individuals feeling alienated to their own emotions and erotic feelings in order to maximize production and wealth. Although Karl Marx did not have much to say in regards to sex and sexuality, he strongly believed that the capitalist economy desexualizes human beings, because the only thing that matters is profit and making more to service the needs the economy demands. Consequently, sexuality is rigidly controlled for market success. In addition Marx stated, “ human nature including our sexuality, is shaped by society and changes historically” (Seidman 5). However, Karl Marx argues that “as we search for personal
These emerge from human action, but stand apart from the individual and affect the individual. society as sui generis – that is, society as a thing in itself, something of its own kind, or a thing apart. Durkheim argued that Marxism is composed of "disputable and out-of-date hypotheses." (Ritzer, p. 73). The further we look into the past, the smaller becomes this difference between man and woman."