As against the Hegelian idealist philosophy, the Marxian philosophy is rooted in the materialist social relations. It means that all social relations are founded on the organization of material relations and resources. Every mode of production and distribution creates a new form of social relations. When Nietzsche traces the origin of all moral, cultural forms to a hidden power animating them, Marx finds the origin of everything in economic organization of the society. Again as different from Psychoanalysis, false consciousness in the individual is the result of economic ordering rather than the working of libidinal forces and the unconscious mind.
‘Focusing on capitalism and wage workers’ “estranged labour,” Marx broke with Hegels “ abstract” emphasis on consciousness and equation of objectification with alienation(Ritzer 2000:96) In the profound theory of alienation Marx continued to answer questions of the development of capitalism. He found that workers in a capitalist society do not possess the raw materials machines or factories in which they work with, but are owned by the capitalists in which the labours have to sell their ability to work in return of a wage. This arrangement of work shows four relations that lie at the centre of Marx 's theory of alienation 1, the worker is cut off or alienated from their productivity and not having any say in deciding what to do or actions to approach the productive activity that is given by the capitalist whom sets the conditions and speed that the labourer should be completing and having complete control the decision if the worker can work or not. Marx saw this as the ‘unequal relation between persons.’ (Ritzer 2000:101) 2, workers are alienated from the product meaning they have no control to how the product is being handled once it has left their station the labour is not free or enjoyable. ‘Marx saw all social life as bearing the imprints of material conditions’ (Ritzer 2002:107) 3, workers are alienated from others and their natural environment.
In this paper, I’ll analyze Marx’s social theory, relations of production, social classes and the structures of capitalist society. Hegelian dialectic approach was the key figure for Marx while he was building the social theory. Avineri shows, "can demonstrate that the distinctive patterns in Marx 's later thought had already taken shape when he attacked Hegel in this work. " (Avineri, pp . 13, 9, 14) Marx rebelled against Hegel 's philosophy in which ideas were taken to be the important determinants of history.
Unlike in economic liberalism, the key actor is the state rather than the individual. Economic nationalists argue on two main assumptions; first is the fact that the inter-state system is anarchical and therefore it is the duty of each state to protect its own interest. The second assumption is concerned with the primacy of the state in political life. In economic nationalists view, the state is the central instrument through which individuals can achieve their goals hence rendering the state an important actor in the domestic and international
To understand the intricacies of Marx’s political and economic philosophy, we must first comprehend the foundation on which this philosophy is built on – one of which is human nature, or ‘human essence’. In his Theses on Feuerbach, Marx writes that ‘the human essence is no abstraction inherent in each single individual. In its reality it is the ensemble of the social relations’. Here, it seems as if he is claiming that there is no such thing as a human ‘nature’. However, what Marx is really saying is that human nature is expressed as a result of the way society is structured economically; the base of society in a particular epoch affects its superstructure, which affects social relations and hence the way we as human beings behave in that epoch.
Hume made many major lasting contribution to economics. Out of the many, one is his assertion that “you cannot deduce ought from is” i.e. one cannot make value judgements simply on the basis of facts. Today, economists make the same point by differentiating between positive ( what is ) and normative (what should be). Another is his idea that economic freedom is a necessity for political freedom.
Socialism incorporates social justice and class-consciousness into the ruling system as it declares that goods should be distributed on the basis of need. Unfortunately, socialism is often seen as a utopian concept, and under the growing power of government and increasing influence of capitalism, Anarchism developed as the purest expression of individualism. Anarchists, social or individualist, see government as an impediment to human progress (Baradat, 1988) and consider an organized state as unnecessary and a corrupting influence on society. Commonly wrongly associated with violence, anarchism
Power is one of the most fundamental and yet problematic sociological concepts with several distinctive conceptualizations by different theorists, ranging from traditional to contemporary perspectives The cornerstone of Marxist notion of power is that power lies within the hands of the ruling class, the bourgeois who own the means of production and power is being used to control and exploit the working class, the proletariats. In contrast to Marxist idea, Bourdieu posited that the ownership over the means of production alone does not determine how power is positioned and reproduced in the society. Bourdieu further asserted that besides economic forces, cultural and symbolic systems are also important factors, which are necessary in maintaining
This essay covers the specific problems of Althusser 's worldview and aims to demonstrate that the general ideas described in Althusser 's “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses” are still applicable to the modern pluralistic society, but do require some minor modifications. Althusser differentiated between two types of ISAs that make the capitalist mode of production possible. The first one was called Repressive State Apparatus(RSA) and was comprised of various types of executive state structures and institutions. The RSAs, according to Althusser, are mainly used to maintain a monopoly of power inside of the capitalist society and at the same time to apply that monopoly in order to sustain capitalist class structures. The second one was called Ideological State Apparatus(ISA) and was working not by power or politics but rather by ideological influence.
Human rights were made to benefit the bourgeois class, in his opinion. Since Waters viewed human rights claims and institutions as being “unique”, he believes that it is impossible to explain the point of origin. Waters believed that the production and use of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights are a result of the following