Karl Marx's Sociological Theory

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Question 1 Karl Marx According to Scott(2006) economy is at the centre of Marx’ sociological theories; he considered society to be the result of an economic base and a social superstructure; it is the economic base which determines all other social structures including ideology, politics, and religion retrieved from http://shell.cas.usf.edu/~simon/documents/Economy%20and%20Society.pdf According to Foley (2009), the knowledge people have of social reality in Marx’s view is a human product has no existence outside the activity of living human beings. Knowledge is a cumulative social creation like a human city, and it has so many aspects of its production and reproduction: teaching, maintenance, critical correction, wholesale destruction and…show more content…
Anomie describes a lack of social norms, or the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and his community ties, resulting in the fragmentation of social identity. According to Durkheim, when one is caught in a normless state in society, one has no parameters to hold on to and, accordingly, cannot situate oneself within that society, and so becomes socially adrift and isolated. Durkheim writes that anomie is common when the surrounding society has undergone significant changes in its economic fortunes, whether for better or for worse, and more generally when there is a significant discrepancy between the ideological theories and values commonly professed, and what is actually practicable in everyday life. Durkheim was writing at a time of sudden industrialization and mass movement of families from rural areas into urban areas. The sociocultural changes associated with such a move contributed to individuals feeling uncomfortable with their new environments and feeling as though they could not easily place themselves in a social…show more content…
Bureaucratic coordination of activities, he argued, is the distinctive mark of the modern era. Bureaucracies are organized according to rational principles. Offices are ranked in a hierarchical order and their operations are characterized by impersonal rules. Incumbents are governed by the methodical allocation of areas of jurisdiction and delimited spheres of duty. Appointments are made according to specialized qualifications rather than ascriptive criteria. This bureaucratic coordination of the actions of large numbers of people has become the dominant structural feature of modern forms of organization. Only through this organizational device has large- scale planning, both for the modern state and the modern economy, become possible. Only through it could heads of state mobilize and centralize resources of political power, which in feudal times, for example, had been dispersed in a variety of centers. Only with its aid could economic resources be mobilized, which lay fallow in pre-modern times. A bureaucratic organization is to Weber the privileged instrumentality that has shaped the modern polity, the modern economy, the modern technology. Bureaucratic types of organization are technically superior to all
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