In the theory of Marxism, the main focus is on the division of labour in the different social classes and how they change over time. Marx was interested in how the capitalistic society operated and how contradictions and conflicts of interest were a result of alienation in the society. The overexploitation of the majority party by the minority was a great concern to Marx as he believed that people should be rewarded depending on the amount of labour they put in. Contradictions arose from this inequality and questioned how far people will go for personal gain. In order to properly understand the contradictions of a capitalist society, key concepts such as the structure of capitalism, social theories and how Marxism works must be taken into consideration.
Surplus Value is a distinction between a worker’s wage and the price of a good or service produced by that worker. This theory is stand on the detail that workers provide value through the labor used to produce goods and services. Karl Marx also believed that other economic concepts such as imperialism or capitalism, did not properly value the workers to produce goods or the surplus value created by their labor. This kind of value does not express the actual value of a physical economic resource or good. This added value is understood through the labor needed to produce the resource or good, which increases the value of the item above its original cost.
Gurley (1984), Karl Marx 7 major contributions to political economy such as he established a framework, investigated the production and circulation processes of industrial capitalism, studied the processes of capital accumulation, one can find an economic theory of the state in Marx's writings, explained how workers are mystified by the system of capitalism, alienated within its production sphere, and misled by false solutions to their problems, investigated the future course of global capitalist and socialist development, and he examined the impact of capitalist expansion on less-developed countries an sketched outlines of the future socialist and communist societies. For the main element of Marx social theory such as all societies are stratified into distinct groups and classes, society is a product of class struggle and social change is more revolutionary than evolutionary, society is a totality, a structure of interrelated levels, social processes are never homogenous and uniform, but contradictory and dialectical, society and history are characterized by certain laws, but it is man who ultimately makes the world through his actions and praxis and class society is held together as much by ideology and as much by
Additionally, for Marx, alienation is one of the main reasons why capitalism leads to communism. In the capitalist context of the 19th century, work was alienated. Labour was treated as a commodity, in the sense that workers were exploited to produce as much as possible for as little as possible so that the bourgeoisie could continue to make profit while the proletariats lived and worked in poor conditions. This lead to the alienation of the working class as they felt a disconnection from what they did all day and who they really are. To Marx, alienation is dangerous in a society because it denies workers “their human, creative origins” (Hampsher-Monk 1992: 499).
Class consciousness is the variation of wealth and the awareness and knowledge of other classes. In The Communist Manifesto, Marx depicts what an ideal society should look like through the lens of communism through describing oppression of classes; therefore an ideal society should not consist of a communist government, but perhaps a democracy instead (Melina, Remy). Marx’s idea of an ideal society is through a communist government. He explains that the communism is associated around the essential idea of the “bourgeoisie”. Marx defines the bourgeoisie as a “class of modern capitalists,owners of the means of social production and employers of wage labour (Marx, 60, footnote, 1).
In their theories both highlight the division of labour and alienation as methods and results of maintaining control within a capitalist society. Durkheim coined the term social facts to describe the external and internal forces that habilitate individuals within a society. “….” . Social facts include values, cultural norms, and social structures comprise those sources that
B. Marxist: Marxism is a system based on the theories of Karl Marx. These theories formed the basis of both socialism and communism. He believed that the struggle of workers would progress into a socialist society and then into a classless society (!). The classless society is known as communism. The struggle of workers was the exploitation of a person’s labor by capitalists.
In a capitalist society, in brief, alienation is found in the process of making which is part of creating oneself, but instead of being fully acknowledged, in exchange of work a wage is received merely because of the fact that each individual needs to survive(Tucker, 1978: 72). The following essay will look at the central concept, alienation, as part of Marx’s critical analysis of capitalist society as well as its possible overcoming. This will be explained through the position of the worker and the product within the process of labour and what the relation is between them. Further by looking at the product of labour in a capitalist society and how alienation plays a role in all of this. Smith expresses a concept of political economy
in step with Marx, the proletarians would eventually tire of their exploitation and oppression and overthrow the capitalist socio-economic class. the tip results of the revolution would be the institution of a Communist society, a egalitarian state wherever all suggests that of production and property ar shared among all voters. the opposite contribution given by marx was Alienation and Revolution- he showed that in history the peasants were operating beneath the aristocracy suggests that the superior was creating work inferior beneath them. thus in step with him within the history peasants worked for the aristocracy. , however by the time passes away the thoughts of marx or the notion in step with him was because the time passes away because the mordernity among the folks increase can|it'll} rise to the equality aong the folks will rise.
Marx also thinks that what the workers want it to feel less alienated. This includes feeling alienated from the product, the process and more .He thinks that under capitalism the only think the bourgeoisie want is profit and to become richer. Marx also speaks about how capitalism will fall and how it will affect the state. He says with the fall of capitalism a revolution will start that will be lead by the proletarians and the intelligentsia. Some of the key problems that Marx associates with the capitalist system are the fact that he think that racism, sexism and heterosim are all by products of capitalism (Romkey, 2018).