Hurricanes are massive storms that form of fronts of warm waters throughout the tropical oceans. The intensity of hurricanes can be categorized on a scale of 1 to 5, with 5 being the most severe. The damage that these storms can bring can be from ripping a tree out the ground, to destroying a whole city.
Federalism is one of the most important and innovative concepts in the U.S. Constitution, although the word never appears there. Federalism is the sharing of power between national and state governments. In America, the states existed first, and they struggled to create a national government. There are many states, which always face storm and flood, and there is an agency which provides service to rescue and helps the victims and family which is called federal emergency management agency and it is established for over 200 years. However, there were many times where FEMA failed to do their job properly for example the hurricane Katrina and New Orleans was at particular risk.
The Stafford Act was enacted in 1988 and determines how and when the federal government is allowed to intervene in a natural disaster. It also defines the type of assistance to be provided as well as the distribution of funds among the federal, state and local governments. FEMA is responsible for coordinating the assistance identified in the Stafford Act. However, FEMA has to answer to the Secretary of Homeland Security rather than making their own decisions. The authors describe how our current governmental system isn’t well equipped to deal with major devastation such as Hurricane Katrina.
FEMA Leadership and Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina has been characterized as one of the most damaging storms to assault the United States. Approximately 1800 people were killed, hundreds of thousands of people were forced into homelessness, and the cost inflicted approximately $100 billion in damages (“Hurricane Katrina,” 2016). The catastrophic results led to vast criticism of various leadership efforts throughout the disaster response. One agency, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), was extensively condemned as many of the leadership decisions resulted in massive blunders, costing further harm and loss of life.
A CASE STUDY ON HURRICANE KATRINA by Sushant Bhatt. Id- 170624. Table of contents Overview The tropical depression that became Hurricane Katrina formed over the Bahamas on August 23, 2005, and meteorologists were soon able to warn people in the Gulf Coast states that a major storm was on its way.
In Katrina’s Wake: National Guidance Throughout the history of the United States Military, historians recorded the heroic actions of Soldiers, Airman, Sailors, and Marines that won countless battles in various conflicts around the world. In modern times, the role of the military changed drastically, especially in regards to the military’s role within natural disasters. Therefore, a National Guidance of Preparedness was developed, which reinforces response readiness and provides guidelines for the sharing of responsibility between all levels of government. After a review of the actions in the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2006, federal, state, and local governments aided in the development of the guidelines, which shape and support preparedness
Approximately 135 billion dollars was needed after the total damages. According to the article called ‘’HURRICANE KATRINA’’ ‘’In all, Hurricane Katrina killed nearly 2,000 people and affected some 90,000 square miles of the United States. ‘’(author unknown). Around 70% (134,000) of all housing units that were occupied had damage done to them. The population of New Orleans dropped to almost half of the people.
Since 80% of the city was flooded, tens of thousands of people went to the Convention Center and Louisiana Superdome for shelter. But help arrived extremely slowly and soon conditions became unsanitary and endangered the people. People suffered from hunger, the heat, and the lack of medical attention. The city was in shreds and there was nowhere to go for most people as the majority of New Orleans was just above the poverty line before the hurricane
The destruction of the earthquake and the fires that followed resulted in the estimated death of more than 3,000 citizens, property damage of $400,000,000, and homeless population of 200,000. With nearly every building leveled and the majority of citizens scattered throughout the city, large companies and businesses were forced to shut down or relocate, damaging the city's economy even greater. As a result, nearly every citizen of San Francisco was left jobless and unable to care for themselves or their family. In addition to the sudden skyrocket in unemployment, a large sum of San Francisco's refugees in need of urgent care could no longer wait for municipal or federal support and began relocating in available sources of aid such as Oakland. In response, social developments like relief services in San Francisco and from around the country organized throughout the city in an attempt to keep its population from lowering any further by providing aid for victims
As I was awakened from a deep sleep, my aunt was yelling “get all your stuff we have to leave.” I didn’t fully understand what was going on by the way I was awakened. It was five o’clock in the morning when I heard my cousin on the other end of the phone saying “we have to leave New Orleans now, the hurricane is going to hit and we will not be safe here.” I never thought I would have to pack up and leave my home because of a natural disaster. As I gather the things that would fit in the small purple suitcase I was still in disbelief of what was going to take place. One by one we loaded up her red Pontiac and headed for the Texas border with my cousin following in the car behind us.
The original system of dual federalism was set up so that the states and national government were separate but worked together. The states did most of the governing instead of the national government. “Citizens daily lives were chiefly affected by their states government not the national.” (Champagne and Harpham, 86) The national government role was to provide for national defence and foreign policy and assist in the development of commerce. The original statement of dual federalism can be found in The Collector v. Day (1807). A Supreme Court case that challenged the authority of the federal government to tax income of a state judge. The majority stated, “ The general government and the states, although both exist within the same territorial
Following the tragic event, the Water and Sewage Board in New Orleans ordered taller levees to be constructed. Hurricane Betsy in 1965 caused leaders to redesign the levee system and the responsibility of levee construction was placed under the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Once again citizens of New Orleans started to reconstruct their city after another natural disaster. Only forty years later Hurricane Katrina, the unfortunate event that was due to the failure of levees to withhold water, left many homeless, dead and looting for survival. Not only did the levees fail the people of New Orleans, but their government also fell short of supplying the desperate citizens of the city with aid and support.
It struck with winds up to 140 mph. Although the hurricane created substantial damage, the aftermath had fatal consequences. The levees that were supposed to withhold a Category 3 hurricane in turn failed and about 50 breaches were created. The 50 breaches were the result of failed construction, neglect of upkeep. The City of New Orleans local & federal legislation should supply the money in order to secure the well being of the city.
In the past, state relief agencies were very inadequate and had to be refurbished in order to meet the criteria of FERA. Overall, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration was not as successful as it could have been as many states refused to take join the