ANTHROPOLOGY Colin Turnbull focused on ecology and culture. According to Turnbull culture shapes both the physical and social environment. physical environment refers to the geophysical environment. Social environment refers to a network of relationships of individuals and groups. BIOLOGY Sir Arthur Tansley was an English botanist.
Syn : means together. 2. haptein : to clasp . means to keep holding something together . (4) CHEMICAL SYNAPSE: DEFINITION: Chemical synapses are defined as : Biological junctions through which neurons signals can be exchanged To each other and to non neuronal cells such as in the muscles and The glands and they allow the neurons to form circuit in central nervous System. They are thus very important biological computations that underlie perceptions and thoughts.
This branch of philosophy refers to three distinct topics- 1) the biological evolution of cognitive mechanisms in animals and humans; 2) a theory that knowledge itself evolves by natural selection; and 3) the study of the historical discovery of new abstract entities. While evolutionary epistemology refers to the theory that applies the concepts of biological evolution and stages of the development of an organism to the growth of human knowledge, it also argues that knowledge, especially scientific theories, evolve according to the principles of natural selection. However, the development of knowledge can be in the form of additions to and/or consistent modifications of the existing knowledge, the initiation and growth of knowledge, the degree of acceptance of old and new knowledge or its evolution over and throughout time in a particular environment. This leads us to the claim- “Evolution of knowledge is based on the adaptation and the ability to give birth to new knowledge.” To answer this claim and support the ever-evolving knowledge, it is important to consider 'falsification of theories' as one of the possible reasons of development and evolution of
Animimics are the designers and engineers who are inspired by the genius of nature. Called biomimicry, they rely on nature’s 3.8 billion years of experience to research and create innovative energy systems. Their designs either improve upon or completely retool human methods to collect and conserve energy. Animimics are the designers and engineers who are inspired by the genius of nature. Called biomimicry, they rely on nature’s 3.8 billion years of experience to research, experiment with, and create innovative systems that either improve upon or completely retool methods to collect and conserve energy.
Thomas Henry Huxley, an English biologist who was known for his Darwin’s Bulldog theory based on Charles Darwin’s evolution theory, once said, “ It is because the body is a machine that education is possible. Education is the formation of habits, a super-inducing of an artificial organization upon the natural organization of the body.” Huxley explains that because of our body, and how it works, humans have been able to find new studies. Huxley’s ideas are similarly seen in the book Stiff, by Mary Roach, which shows the readers that donating one's body involves more than just surgeons removing organs and throwing away a body. Roach shows that donating a body helps enhance further education, newer technology, and greater discoveries. Anatomical research started back in the eighteenth century, when science students could only conduct mock
Psychology has now developed into a discipline that extends and concerned with understanding the behavior and mental processes from multiple perspectives. As the name suggest, biological psychology is a branch of science that tries to explain behavior in terms of biology, and because the most important structures controlling the behavior of the brain, Biopsychology is the study of the brain and how it produces behavioral and mental processes. Implicit in this definition is the assumption that every mental process, feeling and action must have a physical or neural basis in the brain. This is much the same as saying that the mind is the product of the brain’s electrical and neurochemical activity. Although there are philosophical grounds for
Abstract — Brain magnetic resonance (MR) segmentation algorithms are critical to analyze tissues and diagnose edema and tumor in a quantitative way. The primary aim of brain image segmentation is to partition a given brain image into different regions representing anatomical structures. In this paper, we present a new effective segmentation algorithm that segments brain MR images into tumor, edema, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The detection of the healthy tissues and the diseased tissues are performed for examining the change caused by the spread of tumor and edema on healthy tissues is very important for treatment planning. We developed an algorithm for skull stripping before the segmentation process.
A phylogeny is the branch of biology that deals with phylogenies, also it is a visual representation of evolutionary history and enable to reconstruct a phylogeny is to be able to analyze the similarities in characteristics of different organisms. Cladistics is a classification of animals and plants according to the characteristics that these organisms have in common. The more characteristics they share, the better you can make the conclusion that they have a common ancestor. A monophyletic group is an organism(s) that comes from a common ancestor that is not shared with any other. Synapomorphy is a characteristic in an ancestral species and shared by their evolutionary successor.
He was an advocate of the natural sciences. He had taken an interest in the speed of neural impulses. Helmholtz was known for his theory of trichromatic colour vision which is the manner in wich the cells in our eyes enable colour vision. According to the responses given by participants when exposed to wavelengths of light striking the retina, the photoreceptor cells in their eyes are classified into three types-short preferring (Blue), middle preferring( Green), long preferring(Red).These three types detect the strength of the signal which are interpreted by the brain as the visible colour. Structuralism is the study of perceived elements of consciousness.
Piaget and Vygotsky have a significant influence and contribution in the field of developmental phycology with a concentration on cognitive development theory. This paper’s focus is to compare and contrast those two famous psychologists. Moreover, will include a short summary of their theories; similarities and differences between their cognitive development theories, and explain what can be gained after we understand those theories. Psychologists and Their Theories Jean Piaget, biologist and psychologist. He is the author of more than 50 books and the recipient of Erasmus (1972) and Balzan (1978) prizes.
In God’s Laboratory, anthropologist Elizabeth Roberts shows how the Ecuadorian community fits science within its established cultural framework as well as how science can be used as a tool to shape a culture. Ecuador’s culture is shown to be impacted by three major factors: the Catholic church, the state, and science. Those factors were reconstructed when the region was colonized back in the 16th century, forcing the people of the Andes to find ways to fit science within their established ethical and social ideals. After science finds a place in the culture, technology can be used achieve certain social goals as exemplified in the current use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ecuador. The ethnographic report delivered by Roberts can further one’s understanding of both the cultural influences on and the cultural influences of science in a community.
Because, Jerry Coyne, covered this idea of evolutionary change earlier in the book, his focus is on the genetic drift and natural selection being the cause for evolution, during this chapter. Therefore, pileated woodpecker are an example of an animal with adaptations that are beneficial, like the reinforced skull, and a beak that is re-enforced by cartilage. Another, factor at work creating genetic variations are
Intellectual property is a creation of the mind that transforms into new advancements. These can include inventions, artistic works, or logos/symbols. Bioethics is the study of the ethics usually associated with biology and medicine. This