Looking back over the development of the Security Studies field, there can be no doubt that the realist tradition has exercised enormous influence. Even the harshest of critics can acknowledge that with their focus on power, fear, and anarchy, realist theories have provided centrally important explanations for conflict and war (Williams, 2013). One interpretation of realism that is unbroken amongst most commentators of the theory is that realists are individuals that believe the State is the principle actor in international politics and that they are very concerned with the balance of power (Marsalis, 2013). They argue that all the State’s actions and choices are a reflection of the collective will of the people, which is also an argument put
Offensive neo-realism: Mearsheimer is the leading proponent of the theory of offensive neorealism. It is a structural theory which, unlike the classical realism theory related to the IR scholar Hans Morgenthau, it places the principal emphasis on the struggled competition for security among the great powers within the anarchy of the international system, and not principally on the human nature of statesmen and diplomats. Realism however, focuses on the need for power and states that human nature is rational, power hungry with the main focus on state sovereignty. It focuses on the need for security as a state and how the states compete for it. Mearsheimer’s theory of offensive neorealism is mainly built on the five core assumptions.
In a world where absolute rulers rarely exist, it is hard to imagine how Thomas Hobbes would react to our current state of affairs. However, his theories helped shape the landscape of modern political thought. In Leviathan, Hobbes defines the power of a sovereign as being absolute to ensure everyone’s security (136). He describes the state of nature as synonymous to a state of war with “every man, against every man” (82), and the law of nature as “a precept … by which a man is forbidden to do that, which is destructive of his life, or taketh away the means of preserving the same” (84). Individuals form a Commonwealth to escape the state of nature so that “one person, of whose acts a great multitude, by mutual covenants with another, have made themselves every one the author, to the end he may use the strength and means of them all, as he shall think expedient, for their peace and common defense” (112).
Another difference between the two theories is that neoliberalists state that the emergence of international institutions, whether they be formal or informal, has made it easier to accomplish cooperation between states. Neoliberalists view the anarchy as a system that is slowly being taken over by human processes as well as emerging institutions, that now have more ability to ensure states ' survival and reduce uncertainty among states. Structural realists, on the other hand, believe that within an anarchic system, there is an inability to control, which contributes to uncertainty, mistrust, and the desire for power. Neoliberalists name interdependence as one of the reasons why realism can be considered an inaccurate description of today 's global politics. Interdependence is about the mutual reliance two or more states start.
HIS LITERARY CAREER Jack London has been recognized as one of the dynamic figures in American Literature. Sailor, hobo, Klondike Argonaut, social crusader, war correspondent, scientific farmer, self-made millionaire, global traveler, and adventurer. London captured the popular imagination world wide as much through his literary efforts. But it was the quality of his writing, more than his personal legend that won him a prominent place in World Literature. London distinguished him as one of the most widely translated American Authors.
What makes him heroic is that he is willing to show his true potential even at the risk of punishment, or even death. His courage is an immense contrast to his father, who only suffers his handicap, showing that people need to live up to their potential and be brave to change the world. Looking away and adapting to wrong actions is not acceptable. In Contrast Harrison storms in saying he is “the emperor, (…) the greatest ruler who has ever lived” and “everybody must do what (he says)”, he sounds power-mad, perhaps even insane. Vonnegut says that individuals need to fight only to make his hero a power-hungry godlike creature, being both an unreachable ideal and unreliable threat.
Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart (1907-92) is a very crucial pillar in the world of modern Anglo-English theory of law. Legal positivism has enormously evolved and expressively refined in many aspects by many a follower. The problem with this theory of law is that it contains a large amount of pluralism, and is fragmented theoretically to such an extent that no positivist can fully agree with one another. The two mainly classified positivists “Inclusive” and “Exclusive” differ with each other and try to prove the other wrong even within their camps. However Hart’s theory shadows all these agreements and disagreements, as his theory remains by far the most consistent internally, and a very interesting one too.
Due to the reason that paper will examine the characteristics of a International Public Relations in different countries, case study approach was chosen as an research strategy. Case study approach is widely used in the organizaional studies and social sciences (Hartley, 1994.p.208; Hartley 2004.p.323). Some scholars claim that case studies became one of the most common way to conduct qualitative research (Stake, 2000).But at the same time it is professed as "they are neither new nor essentially qualitative" (p.435). A case study is in- debth examination of a particular single case such as a policy, programme, implementation process. Comparative case studies cover tqo or more cases in order ro generalize more knowledge about how or
Modern states believed that the only party that can ensure the state’s national interest is none else than itself. The biggest difference between classical and structural realism can be seen from how states perceive the nature of power and threat. In classical realism, state’s pursuit for power is
That is the reason why Realism perspective deems that the main focus of states in the international system is to struggle for power. Thus, world of power politics is cannot be separated from the power distribution among states. If the power which pursued by most of the states has no clear regulations or rules upon it, there is the possibility of chaos that will