The histological findings of Mikulicz cells, Russell bodies and positive Warthin-Starry stains are more characteristic and diagnostic in the proliferative stage. The catarrhal stage has no specific features that a pathologist can recognize. If clinically suspected a nasal swab for culture on Mac-Conkey agar to isolate the microorganisms would confirm the diagnosis.  Differentials to keep in mind include bacterial causes such as tuberculosis, actinomycosis and leprosy which can produce granulomas in the upper airways. Fungal infections including histoplasmosis, blastomycosis and sporotrichosis should also be considered.
Partly by the bacterial enzyme, and partly by the enzyme released from synovium, inflammatory cell and pus. • Effect confined on articular cartilage. Extensive erosion can occur due to synovial proliferation and ingrowth. Causes • Septic arthritis develops when bacteria, virus of fungi spread through the blood to a joint. • It may also occur when the joint is directly infected with a microorganism from an injury or during surgery.
These findings were in accordance with a study conducted by Edmiston et al(11) who found that common organisms colonizing infected sutures include Serratia spp, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Peptostreptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacteroides fragilis and Serratia spp. Although a skin commensal ,it is siginificant to know that staphylococci are responsible for a number of skin infections(32) (33) and will undoubtebly play a role in causing a wound infection in presence of a suture. Gram negative organisms such as Klebsiella, pseudomonas are non- commensals having a role in skin
4. Molecular Diagnosis Parasite nucleic acids are identified by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Even though this technique may be somewhat more susceptible than microscopy, it is of restricted effectiveness for the diagnosis of acutely ill patients in the standard healthcare setting. PCR results are often not obtainable rapidly enough to be of value in establishing the diagnosis of malaria infection. PCR is mostly beneficial for verifying the species of malarial parasite after the diagnosis has been recognized by either microscopy or RDT.
On the other hand, they also have a disadvantage for patients who suffer from frequent infections. The regular intake of antibiotics triggers antibiotic resistance. This happens when bacteria resist the influences of the antibiotics. Therefore, patients must follow the clinical directions carefully. ( (n.d.).
Available literature suggests that alterations in normal microbial community of several organ systems can further influence HIV transmission, progression and the potential for a vaccine or cure. Despite effective viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV continue to have excess non-AIDS morbidity and mortality. Much work has gone into elucidating the mechanisms by which intestinal microbiota augment or disrupt intestinal barrier function, immune response to antigen and systemic immune
1.1 ACNE VULGARIS Acne vulgaris is a disease of the pilosebaceous follicle characterized by non-inflammatory (open and closed comedones) and inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules, and nodules). Its pathogenesis is multi factorial - the interplay of hormonal, bacterial, and immunological (inflammatory) factors results in the formation of acne lesions. Although acne is not a life-threatening condition, it can have detrimental effects on the quality of life of affected individuals. Fortunately, acne is readily responsive to the wide-range of available medications, with the goals of therapy being to clear the lesions, prevent scarring, and limit any treatment-related side-effects and psychosocial squealed. Newer fixed-dose combination products
Ocular examination reveals conjunctival and ciliary congestion, profound decrease in vision even up to perception of light with accurate or inaccurate projection of rays. Corneal oedema, hypopyon, signs of uveitis, reduction in intraocular pressure, exudation in vitreous leading to reduced or absent fundus reflex are the other associated features. The clinical picture is variable depending upon the route of entry, infectious process and duration of disease. Precaution & Prevention: The prognosis is better if one does not attempt to squeeze or puncture the Endophthalmitis, as infection may spread to adjacent tissues. Also, patients are recommended to call a doctor if they encounter problems with vision, the eyelid bump becomes very painful, the Endophthalmitis bleeds or reoccurs, or the eyelid or eyes becomes
Prevention of Oral Chlamydia The safest means of prevention of oral Chlamydia is abstinence from tongue-vaginal-stimulation. However, where a person wants to indulge in fellatio (oral-penile-stimulation), cunnilingus (oral-vaginal-stimulation), or anilingus (oral-anal-stimulation) without getting infected by oral Chlamydia, these options are available to prevent the bacterial infection: • Condoms. Condoms are cheap and easy to find in stores and are easy to use but the downside of using a condom (especially latex) is that it is oily and may cause a little irritation. • Dental dam. This is more difficult to find in stores and its cost is on the high side.
The clinical signs and manifestations (e.g., fever, headache, nausea, and muscle aches) resemble many other diseases during the early stages when antibiotic treatment has more effect. A history of exposure to the appropriate vector tick, louse, flea, or mite is helpful but we cannot base our work upon it. Observation of a rash, which usually appears on or after day 3 of illness, should suggest the possibility of a rickettsial infection but, of course, may occur in many other diseases also. Knowledge of the geographic epidemiology of rickettsioses is useful, but is inconclusive for the individual patient. Except for epidemic louse-borne typhus, rickettsial diseases strike mostly as isolated single cases in any particular neighborhood.