An additional keratoconus-related parameter provided in the stat box is pachymetry of the thinnest point (displayed as: “Thinnest”) and its distance (mm) from the visual axis. Although there is no strict clearcut of corneal thickness that specifically characterizes keratoconus, the color code will define by warm colors corneas of 500 μm or less as suspicious. If the thinnest point is located on the right to the vertical line, the first coordinate (x-axis) will be positive (Liu et al., 1999). If it is located to the left – the first coordinate will be negative; if the thinnest point is located above the horizontal line, the second coordinate (y-axis) will be positive, otherwise it will be negative. The location of the thinnest point of the cornea may be helpful in the diagnosis of keratoconus: in 70% of normal individuals it is located in the inferotemporal quadrant at an average distance of 0.90 mm (SD 0.51) from visual axis (Liu et al., 1999), thus any readings outside of 2 standard deviations from this value (i.e.
Although the prevalence of polydipsia among ill patients remains uncertain, therefore, this study helps to find the answers. Event though, the radiology image are be attained from the gray scale, however, the diagnosis outcomes will show the best diagnosis. This is because; based what is written by (Maroz et al. 2012) a renal ultrasonography aid in visualization of complete resolution of the hydronephrosis. In addition to it, the degree of hydronephrosis can be determined by the performing physician's interpretation of the on image produce as well as measure the size of the kidney where it may aid diagnosing etiology.
The corneal thinning that occurs in Pellucid Marginal Degeneration is identified by 1- 2 mm of inferior peripheral thinning, spreading from the 4 o' clock to 8 o' clock positions . This thinning represents the clinical feature of Pellucid Marginal Degeneration in view of it resembling a crescent shaped band . The area of approximately 1-2 mm between the thinning cornea and the limbus remains unaffected and the centre of the cornea maintains its normal thickness [1,5]. The standard corneal sensation remains intact . In some cases following corneal thinning, acute hydrops or corneal perforation may result.
Orthokeratology lenses work particularly on the anterior corneal tissue, however it is not clear whether the effect is mainly on the epithelium, anterior stroma, or both (6). Moreover , there are several theories on forces which are involved in inducing corneal change in orthokeratology. One of such theory proposed that the downward pressure of the central portion of the orthokeratology lens was flattening the underlying corneal epithelial cells (6). Another theory suggested that the orthokeratology lens created an outward pulling pressure in the tear film. This pressure gradient was thought to pull the epithelial cells peripherally, hence resulting in re-distribution of epithelial cells in the cornea (6).
The commonly seen benign lesions were chronic abscesses and cystic changes of the breast. The most common malignancy detected was invasive ductal carcinoma and ductal carcinoma in situ. Conclusions: We found that elastography using a cut-off value of 2.5 for the strain ratio had a higher specificity, positive and negative predictive value when used as an adjunct to sonomammography, Key-words: Elastography, breast lesions, strain elastography, sonomammography, FNAC.
To correlate cyto-clinical–histopathological findings in the unhealthy cervix by Pap smear to determine its validity and feasibility. Materials and methods: Pap smears from 1,000 patients who presented in the Gynaecology department with the unhealthy cervix (discharge, bleeding or signs like erosion were clinically grouped
The thickness of endometrium should be 7mm or greater. This is associated with higher pregnancy rate. 2. Endometrial pattern: It is the echogenesity of the myometrium and endometrium. Grading- Gonen and Casper grading system(1990) Type a- it is a homogenous hyperechoic pattern.
In the computational model, the outer and inner radii of curvature of the corneal were set as 7.8 and 6.6 mm, respectively (33, 34). In addition, the horizontal and base diameters (including the limbus parts and a part of the sclera) of the cornea were set as 11 and 15.3 mm, respectively
I went on to assess her fundus which was 1 cm below umbilicus, midline and center. After, doing my assessments on baby and everything was within normal. I got patient #1 up to the bathroom to urinate. She had small bloody tinged urine. Later, I went on to do vitals and assessment on patient # 2.
The shape of it could be easily determined with the help of corneal topographical instruments. The departure of the cornea from its ideal shape gives its aberration, which does not give the aberration contribution of the chosen reference axis. The asphericity Q for the frontal surface conicoid of an ideal cornea, given a distant object, independent of its radius, relates to the refractive index of the cornea ‘n’ by Q = -1/n2 ≈ -1.376 ≈ -0.53 (7) Aberration contribution by the cornea for any ray traced through the cornea in wave aberration is given by Corneal aberration ≈ (n-1) z