Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
In each of the stages are measured person new challenges associated with age (degree of development) and social situations in which it is situated. Erikson described the characteristic "crises" occurring in stages that will be shown are the most viable. This does not mean that later no longer have meaning. It's like all of us strike deal with them shapes our personality. The crisis is understood in this theory as the need to develop new forms of adaptation to the environment and fulfill our needs.
One may have to resolve the conflict in order to pass on to another stage. Ego and superego are as well developing when people are passing through the psychosexual stages in order to control the Id and solve the conflict in each stage. Freud’s idea of psychosexual theory is a great contribution to the developments of
Adlerians emphasise relationships within the family, with particular interest in birth order and sibling relationships. The family probably has a large impact on an individual because it is the earliest social system he gets familiar with. These relationships and the perception of an individual’s position in the family, influences his interactions with the world. Clients are then encouraged to change the resultant flawed cognitive perspectives. The concept most characteristic of REBT, is the A-B-C framework.
She does this by being very detailed in her documentation of Enrique’s journey which allows the audience to see the more trivial things that end up building to the extreme situation that Enrique was eventually thrown into. The smaller ordeals that Nazario cites portrays Enrique’s life in a more relatable way in which others can see the positive and negative effects that family relationships can have in the coming of age process. Through this relatability, the audience is able to establish a connection with Enrique’s life which allows Nazario to emphasize how family relationships can have both positive and negative effects on someone during the coming of age period. Nazario makes this connection when she documents Belky stating, “On Mother’s Day, Belky cries quietly, alone in her room. She struggles through the celebrations at school.
Whilst conflict is inevitable Harding provides insight in describing conflict “as the beginning of consciousness”. Realistic group conflict theory (RGCT) offers a behavioural approach to conflict resolution demonstrated in Sheriff Robert Cave’s experiment. RGCT asserts that a real or imagined threat to one’s group interest often leads to conflict. Initially the situation presented with a competitive edge as the groups clamoured for the scarce resource . However, through working together, they were able to pool physical and financial resources to benefit both groups.
Theoretical framework Erik Erikson based on Freud's thoughts and augmented his hypothesis by focusing on the psycho social parts of advancement past early adolescence. His hypothesis of improvement holds that psycho sexual development and psycho social development happen together, and that at each phase of life we confront the assignment of building up harmony amongst ourselves and our social world. He depicts advancement as far as the whole life expectancy, separated by particular emergencies to be settled. As indicated by Erikson, an emergency is equal to a defining moment in life when we can possibly push ahead or to relapse. At these defining moments, we can either resolve our contentions or neglect to ace the formative errand.
It also emphasises the fact that all life experiences are significant and will influence you later in life (Carducci, 2009). A weakness of this theory is that Erikson suggests that one should conform within society instead of having individual choices and ideas according to Carducci (2009). Another weakness is that Erikson states that one needs to develop an identity of oneself but within the boundaries of what is considered as acceptable by society and anything else is seen as a negative identity (Carducci,
Our lives are marked by events that make us grow and mature. We cannot grow if we are too comfortable. Only by being out of our comfort zone will we notice substantial transformations in ourselves. Many times, to advance through obstacles, one must endure excruciating pain. To get through difficult situations the only option might be to reinvent yourself, to replace what you thought was fair and right, and adjust yourself to the new reality.
This created the idea of pragmatism, where it is believed that reality must be experienced and that we must interact with our environment so we can continue to be able to adapt and learn. An example of this can be seen in observation 4 (Appendix 1), where Emily is experiencing emotional and social changes and is having to learn and adapt through a hands on experience by engaging in new social interactions whilst facing her feelings and learning from them. Erikson (1968) believed that throughout the lifespan, people deal with different ‘crisis’ that need resolving. If the crisis is resolved successfully than a life-stage virtue is achieved, but if not, the person can suffer emotional distress (flood 2014). His nine stages, known as psychosocial stages, show at different ages throughout life which we develop life-stage virtues.
and institutional changes that we have encountered (O’Rand, 2012). More specifically, Riley’s new life course model is now “age-integrated” and “multiplex” (O’Rand, 2012, p. 199). This life course model also considers the opportunity and constraints different groups experience due to inequalities (O’Rand, 2012). Despite these changes, there is still some room for improvement. More specifically, although life course is a strong theory, as it explores the diversity of individual’s lives and heterogeneity, life course theory takes on a behavioural perspective, which also makes heterogeneity one of its greatest limitations.
Times effect on relationships between people can only truly be understood when we examine how and why our relationships change over time. Through using Judith Butler’s Beside Oneself as a framework we gain an understanding of the significance time is capable of having on relationships between people. When using Beside Oneself as a framework I can conclude that the effect time has on relationships is often the result of many circumstances combined over a period of time. Through applying Butler’s idea of how time creates a dependence between people in a relationship that eventually causes a transformation of who we are. We are shown how vital time is in a relationship.
Interruptions to self-development may correlate with social skill difficulties, which are experienced in psychosis (Tarbox et al.,2008). Specifically, Lysaker et al. (2014) argued that disorganized personal narratives in psychotic patients are developed from personal experiences, which are crucial in constructing identity. The model of ‘self’ by Trower &Chadwick (1995) pointed out that a fully constructed self-identity has to be recognized and approved by other people via social interactions and relationships. In terms of identity development, problematic identity construction found in adolescence psychosis and study by Cuervo et al.