1. Describe the key factors in the Sui-Tang era that made for the restoration of a strong, unified Chinese empire after centuries of turmoil? The restoration of a strong, unified Chinese empire after centuries of turmoil was made possible through the reestablishment of a centralized empire, the revival of Confucian ideas and the enhancement of the scholar-gentry administrators. The creation of a bureaucracy allowed for control from the imperial palace all the down to district level. To have effective administrators to run the bureaucracy, the civil service exam was a must. It allowed for the state officials to be educated in principles essential to a successful bureaucracy. Another key factor was Neo-Confucianism, which allowed for social harmony …show more content…
Confucian scholar-administrators held a growing campaign which tried to convince Tang rulers that the Buddhist monastic establishment posed economic challenges to the imperial order. This campaign was held because the Tang had lost huge amounts of revenue because monastic lands were not taxed. 4. Describe the innovations and socioeconomic developments accounted for the widespread prosperity of the Tang/Song era? The widespread prosperity of the Tang/Song era was made possible through innovations and socioeconomic developments such as canal building, Chinese junks, deposit shops and flying money. The Grand Canal allowed for the movement of people and goods between from west to east, while the junks allowed the Chinese sailors and merchants to become a dominant force in Asian seas. The use of deposit shops and flying money allowed for the safer travels of the merchants at this time. 5. Explain the main social effects of these …show more content…
It caused rulers to promote peasants to migrate to land occupied by people of non-Chinese descent ad well as military garrisons to protect the new settlements and complete the task of subduing non-Chinese people. Policies, such as breaking up the great estates of the old aristocracy and distributing land equitably among free peasant households of the empire, were adopted. 6. How did the scholar gentry become such a dominant force in Chinese politics and society? The scholar gentry became such a dominant force in Chinese politics and society because they held a high status and prominent role. Those who were able to pass the difficult exams and earn position in high offices were treated with reverence and achieved special social status. They were also granted access to refined pleasures the elite could enjoy and had a great influence in the revival of Confucian ideas and values. 7. In what ways did relations between Chinese and Nomadic peoples to the North shape Chinese dynasties? The relations between Chinese and Nomadic people to the North shaped Chinese dynasties by allowing the Song to maintain a well-organized and productive army. The Grand Canal was also originally created because of the Nomadic people to the North, and it ultimately, allowed to migration and commercial
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During the Classical era, civilizations around the world had to develop and perfect their own methods of governing their empires. Two of the largest empires at the time were Han China as well as the Imperial Roman Empire. As they created their own ways of running a kingdom, they began to create ideas that were comparable, but also had ideas that were contradictry. Both of these kingdons were focased on expansion of their boarders and their culture. These empires had an agricultural base that was the building blocks for their power.
The three aspects that were most molded in these centuries were religion, technology and, in turn, society. Religion in China was constantly changing and blending during the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasty. Buddhist influence and Confucian knowledge made up the government's ideologies during the Sui/Tang Era, later Daoist and Confucian rivals rethought Buddhist philosophy and allowed for the rebirth of old traditions with modern aspects and innovation. Technology during these eras were constantly in motion the Tang dynasty mostly left ideas that the Song dynasty perfected over time.
The imperial governments of Han China and Rome after Augustus each had their own distinct characteristics, shaped by their own unique histories and the cultural and social norms of their respective times. The institutions of imperial government developed in each state were quite different from one another, with the Han Chinese government relying heavily on Confucian ideals, while the Roman government was more focused on practicality and efficiency. In order to understand why these differences exist, one must look at the historical, cultural, and religious contexts of both societies. In Han China, Confucianism was the dominant philosophy and its influence shaped the institutions of the imperial government.
1) Thesis: During the Han Dynasty, techonogy was almost exclusively viewed positively, while in the Roman Empire, the attitude regarding technology varied. 2) Group 1: In the Han China, technology was seens as a way to improve the quality of goods and improve the lives of the general population. a) Doc 2: A Han government official by the name of Huan Guan wrote that the govt. monopoly on iron should be lifted so that families with pride in their work could be able to construct weapons, rather than have prisoners with no regard for the quality of the weapons construct them. b) Doc 4: In a government sponsored history of the early Han Dynasty, an annonymus source writes about Tu Shi and how he “destroyed evil doers” (Doc 4) and “wished to save their
Religions like Daoism or Buddhism and philosophies like Confucianism had great control over how East Asia was run. These ideologies resonated with all walks of life from the time: Buddhist karma gave the common people something to look forward to; Confucian guidelines made the relationship between government and the governed better; Daoism gave purpose to many spiritually confused people. Some government officials used the influential powers of these religions to make political gains. Others used certain aspects of the religions to dissent from the government’s tight grip on society. Most used them to find inner peace and motivation.
During the era of classical societies, the Han and Roman empires were two vast cosmopolitan societies which dominated regions all throughout Eurasia. In regards to the fall of the Han and Roman empires, both were similar in that they fell victim to internal government decay, but different in that Rome fell to foreign invasions, while Han suffered from rebellions of their own people. The Han and Roman empires were similar in their fall in that they both suffered from internal decay, specifically of their governments. In the Han empire, land distribution problems that were originally sought to be fixed by the “Socialist emperor” Wang Mang allowed large landowners to become even more influential than they previously were.
China, up until the Qin Dynasty, consisted of independent states controlled by kings fighting each other for land and power. This time period was called The Era of Warring States, which lasted two hundred years. After this time, the Qin Dynasty rose to power. They conquered all other dynasties, and established a centralized government, unifying China for the first time. The dynasty that succeeded the Qin, the Han, continued the centralized government and they started a westward expansion that would encourage trade and cultural diffusion.
They built the granaries near the capitals and were made to supply the Sui people with a cheap and stable supply of food. The Sui helped in the development of the Great Wall of China, which was very important to the people of China because the great wall provided them with protection from invaders. For these reasons I would agree that “Although of short duration, the Sui dynasty was one of China’s mostsignificant.” "Chinese civilization reached its apex during the Tang dynasty" The Tang also had many accomplishments within their 300 year reign.
During the Tang and Song dynasty, China made many new advance things like math,literature,technology,and science. These advancement gave many European empires to struggle for years. Their greatest inventions was the gunpowder,the printer and the compass. Here are some reasons of what was the Tang and Song dynasty greatest achievement of all time First was the government. The government had to make important decisons that can change the community.
Constant warfare brought about the need for military organisation, taxation and technological advancement. Kinship was suppressed in favour of impersonal administration. The Qin state builders saw early that the kinship networks of earlier ages were impediments to the accumulation of power, so they implemented policies deliberately intended to replace them with a system that tied individuals directly to the state. This doctrine was called Legalism. Confucianism exists and imposes moral accountability.
The government improve the teaching of the Sui Dynasty so the people could have a more free place to live. The government was divided into six ministries. The ministries help create the laws and policies. The ministries are administration, finance, military, rites, justice, and public work. It was a super proficient government.
Social hierarchy and mobility b. Roles of women and children in the Tang Dynasty 3. The Economical aspect of the dynasty a. The innovations and changes the dynasty added to the Chinese economic system b. The income and types of jobs in the empire 4. The Political aspect of the dynasty a.
Furthermore, when looking into The Confucius’s Analects, constant signs of utter chaos in China at the time are displayed that show there was no sign of justice or equality present. In addition, there was an increase in conflict over territories scattered across China. In The Confucius’s Analects there were “three themes of Confucius’s day were incessant warfare, the further devolution of power from the Zhou-appointed feudal houses into the hands of subordinate families that managed to accumulate power locally, and the rising fluidity of social mobility” (“Analects Introduction”). From looking into this text given from The Analects Introduction, the cause for China to be in chaos in first place was demonstrated which also reflected the events that promoted Confucius to create and spread his philosophy addressing that love and care for people is needed in order to solve the conflict among feudal lords along with promoting freedom, to insure that no one would have to face the consequence of losing their freedom when their land is lost or when becoming subordinate to feudal lord with no
Different periods throughout China’s history have different names, known as dynasties, for the diverse positions within its society. Theoretically, all of the periods are similar, with the government and military officials ranking high in the hierarchy, and the average everyday people being under regular Chinese law. Throughout China’s history, the society has been organized into a hierarchic system of socio-economic classes, known as the four occupations. The four occupations system seems to have become distorted after the commercialization of Chinese culture during the Song Dynasty. Even though the social rankings within the country are not as predominant as they once were, the people living within the country still know their “place” within the society.