Later on it was applied to literature. Basically psychoanalysis deals with the PSYCHE. Shakespeare tried to expose the minds of his characters in the form of Soliloquies so we can say that Shakespeare may be the first author to enter the minds of his characters .At that time Shakespeare did not know about the theories of psychoanalysis. It was Sigmund Freud who dared to analyze human psyche. As Felman says, “We normally tend to see psychoanalysis as the active practice performed upon the passive texts.” He also states that “psychoanalysis of literature creates a power struggle and so there are multiple
Heartache, anger, sadness, disappointment, and fear can all be thought of as first arrow emotions, these are normal to experience. These first arrow emotions can be painful, but it’s the second arrow emotions that are even more painful and the cause of our suffering. Guilt, shame, greed, hatred, bitterness, and jealousy are all considered second arrow emotions, arising when we ruminate over our first arrow emotions. The idea of mindfulness is to learn to observe the first arrow, without being hooked and dragged by the second arrow. Overall, by cultivating awareness of how one’s mind creates unnecessary misery, and increasing one’s capacity to live in the present and experience the joyful moments, mindfulness practice helps to transform one’s way of life for the
The role of the therapist in relation to the client is also explored, and explains just how important this relationship and type of therapy is to the field. The main idea of this research piece is to analyze psychoanalysis, and the therapeutic process as a unit working in tandem with each other. Overview of Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious
It’s unrealistic to expect constant unconditional positive regard, as most things in life are conditional. Moreover, placing the sole responsibility on the client makes me uneasy, as there are various circumstances out of one’s control. Not to mention, person centered therapist do not take a history, do not evaluate client’s ideas, feelings, or plans, avoid making deep interpretations of clients’ behavior. Additionally, Person centered therapy is more useful to highly verbal clients and may not be appropriate for clients who have difficulty expressing themselves. It also places too much responsibility on the client and not enough on the expertise of the therapist.
A combination of psychology and theatre, drama therapy uses theatre and personal expression to deal with the inner psyche of psychologically affected patients (Let me start by telling you a bit more about what are some of the techniques used in drama therapy: _Preview___) Body – (include citations of sources) I. There are some core techniques which are commonly used in drama therapy to help patients to connect with their emotions (Langley, 2006) a. Dramatic projection: the process of selecting aspects of self and using drama therapy to change his perspective of the situation b. Embodiment: using one’s physique to describe his or her own
To see the changes, there are few techniques suggested by the founder. Firstly, REBT theory provides cognitive techniques for practitioner to apply towards clients. Cognitive techniques can be divided into a few ways. According to Wayne (2005), cognitive techniques include rational analysis, double-standard dispute, catastrophe scale, devil’s advocate and reframing. Wayne explains rational analysis is an analysis of specific episodes by the therapist to teach the client how
The other one is empathic understanding it is the counsellor’s ability to experience the enthusiastic contents of the messages conveyed by the clients and to sustain this seeing over to the customer. While to Carl Rogers approach the quality is the thing that helps the therapeutic result, psychoanalysis put specific stress on the utilization of particular therapeutic procedures. These systems include the free association technique this helps the client to slowly put his conflict into words. The other technique is interpretation of the client’s dreams and defences against his painful and thoughtless feelings and insights. The interpretation ought to be imparted unmistakably and just when the patient is prepared to accept it.
Carl Rogers was an American-born psychologist best known for his pioneering development of humanistic psychology. Dissatisfied with the therapeutic techniques of the day (the 1960 's), he formulated a new beneficial practice of “client-centered” therapy, later known as Rogerian Therapy. In the 2007 book Communicating ethically: character, duties, consequences, and relationships, William Neher and Paul Sandin write of Rodgers most enduring contribution to the field of communication ethics was Rogers belief that “Unconditional Positive Regard is the most ethical form of dialogue between people” (p.91). Rogers would give his full attention to each patient, not judging but caring, not evaluating but engaging, in the conversation to bring the patient to realize their full potential as a human being. "In my early professional years, I was asking the question: How can I treat, or cure, or change this person?
The founder of psychoanalysis in Sigmund freud (1856-1939).to understand human behaviour psychoanalysis is a system of treatment that has given rise to discoveries and controversies that are actively with us today. It is a method of examining psychic phenomena and treating mental and emotional disorders that is based on the concepts and theories of Sigmund Freud, that highlights the importance of free association and dream analysis, and that involves treatment sessions during which the patient is encouraged to talk freely about personal experiences and especially about early childhood and dreams. The unconscious mind is made up of several, memories, feelings and urges that are external from our conscious mind The contents of the unconscious are generally unacceptable or unpleasant. Such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to freud,1923,p.15.
Review of literature Teachers represent the ideals and aspirations of the nation and owe to its moral and mental accountability for equipping youth for active participation in the enterprise of creating social order. Teachers have to demonstrate a high level of professionalism to meet the standard required by national policies. This aim can be realized by effective, brilliant teachers, teachers who are equipped with the training that has a direct bearing on the quality of life. The teacher is a pivot in the entire education system. As James (1977) states: In teaching, you must simply work with your pupil into such a state of interest in what you are going to teach him that every other object of attention is banished from his mind: then reveal