The most useful method of detection of a Meckel diverticulum is Technetium-99m scanning. It is a method depends on ulceration and bleeding because to the heterotropic gastric mucosa (8) . The symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction occur late. Obstruction can occur only if the base of the diverticulum is broad enough to cause narrowing of the intestinal lumen. A mass at the hernial site which is tender associated with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain are the main symptoms.
6- Intraductal papillomas Benign breast lesions affecting the lactiferous ducts, but smaller peripheral ducts may also be involved; they’re wart-like growths of gland tissue with fibrous tissue and blood vessels (fibrovascular tissue). Papillomas may be solitary or multiple. Solitary papillomas: the commonest; are single tumors that usually occur centrally in subareolar ducts, they are a common cause of clear or bloody nipple discharge, may be felt as a small lump behind the nipple. ¬¬ Multiple papillomas: likely to be peripheral and involve terminal duct lobular units, found in small ducts in areas of the breast farther from the nipple, less likely to cause nipple discharge and usually bilateral. (37) ¬¬¬¬¬¬
Introduction Stomatitis areata migrans (SAM) was first described by Cooke in 1955 1. It has been considered a more extensive involvement of the same process found in the geographic tongue. Geographic tongue is an interesting lesion of unknown etiology, although it has been related to emotional stress. Geographic tongue is also known as wandering rash of tongue, benign migratory glossitis, glossitis areata exfoliativa and erythema migrans. The condition consists usually of multiple areas of desquamation of the filiform papilae of the tongue in an irregular circinate pattern.
On the other hand, persistence of these findings is a signal of infection. In which it usually occurs through the invasion and skin breakdown. There are some similarities between infection and Charcot joint such as, leukocytosis, fever, and hyper sedimentation. Systemic signs and symptoms or ulceration are more suggestive but not diagnostic of infection, and co-occurrence has been described in 16% of diabetics with ulcer. To evaluate acute CN, thermal evaluation is important because the affected foot temperature is 2°C warm more than the other foot.
Currently the most accepted hypothesis is a vascular disruption causing a hypoxic/ischemic insult to the brainstem in the first trimester23, 24. This can be caused by various teratogens evoking uterine contractions. The following teratogens have been described including: gestational hyperthermia 25, 26, chorionic villus sampling 27, abuse of benzodiazepines 28, alcohol 25,cocaine29, thalidomide 30, ergotamine 31 or self-induced abortion – misoprostol 32. Hypoplasia or aplasia of the nuclei can also be caused by genetic mechanisms 1, but because the majority of Moebius syndrome cases are sporadic, genetics play only a minor role. So far three different chromosomal regions for familial Moebius syndrome have been reported: MBS1 (OMIM 157900, 13q12.2-q13) 33, 34, MBS2 (OMIM 601471, 3q21-q22) and MBS3 (OMIM 604185, 10q21.3-q22.1) 35, 36.
Bernard-Soulier syndrome is an inherited platelet disorder caused by a defect in a gene responsible for a receptor that aids platelets in adhering to the lining of injured blood vessels. This disorder is characterized by thrombocytopenia and large nonfunctional platelets (Pham,2007). Patients often present initially with bleeding symptoms such as purpua, epistaxis, ecchymosis, bleeding of the gums, and menorrhagia (Lanza,2006). Diagnosis is further confirmed by platelet aggregation studies and flow cytometry. Treatment is mainly supportive, such as, the use of DDAVP to shorten bleeding times, with more serious hemorrhages being treated with platelet transfusions.
INTRODUCTION Malattia Leventinese (ML), is genetically homogeneous macular dystrophy with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance.1 ML is a rare macular disease characterized by the presence of amorphous sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deposits known as drusen between the RPE and Bruch’s membrane. Drusen forming a mosaic pattern named Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy.2 The importance of this disease is due in large part to the presence of drusen, a feature shared with age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is a heterogeneous late onset macular degenerative condition, accounting the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. However, unlike AMD, drusen form at a much earlier age in ML.
Spina Bifida Occulta is a condition in which the bones of the spine do not close but the pineal cord and meninges remain in place and skin usually cover the defect ( Medline Plus). Meningocele is more severe “protrude from the spinal opening and form a fluid filled sac visible on a baby’s back” (Benioff Children;s Hospital, 2012). Some babies have
Occasional cytoplasmic vacuolations were seen. Few clusters of fragments of spindle cells with moderate amount of cytoplasm and elongated nuclei were also seen. Background showed scattered hemosiderin laden
Cystic Fibrosis Could you Imagine what it would be like if you had a disorder that clogged and blocked the passageways in your body? Well there is a disease that does this very same thing, and it’s called Cystic Fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease that causes your body to produce a thick and sticky mucus. No, the disease isn’t the mucus being produced, it’s the mucus being thick and sticky. This mucus is supposed to be thin and watery, so it can act like a lubricant and help protect your bodies organs and passageways.
Symptoms are non-specific and characteristically include a history of headaches from intracranial hypertension secondary to obstruction of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles. In addition, vomiting, nausea, visual disturbances, such as Parinaud Syndrome, auditory and balance deficits may be present as a result of pyramidal tract dysfunction. The proximity of the tectal plate to the aqueduct of Sylvius in the mesencephalon makes non-communicating hydroencephalus the most likely culprit for the increased intracranial pressure.