Throughout history, many nations have implemented imperialism to enforce their will over others for money, protection, and civilization. In many cases, England was the imperial, or mother country. In the 1700’s the British Empire invaded India and took control of the country. Although India was accustomed to invaders by the time the British arrived, British effectively did the most damage by arriving at a fragile time for the Indians. The Indians were suffering from the fall of the Mogul Empire, which had controlled most of India from 1526 until the death of Aurangzeb in 1707.
They attributed the 1857 uprising to the Muslims alone who were considered the “main culprits” and thus bore the brunt of British wrath. In order to prevent recurrence of any uprising, the British deliberately followed a repressive policy against the Muslims who were also kept out of responsible government jobs. In looking for the causes of the “Mutiny”, the British colonial rulers alighted on two things: religion and the economy. On religion it was felt that there had been too much interference with indigenous traditions, both Hindu and Muslim. On the economy it was believed that the previous attempts by the Company to introduce free market competition had undermined traditional power structures and bonds of loyalty placing the peasantry at the mercy of merchants and money-lenders.
He was not open-minded and spend most of his time fighting against rebellions. Aurangzeb was committed to making India an orthodox Muslim state. As a result, Aurangzeb destroyed many Hindu temples and banned Hindu festivals. Censors or Royal religious police were appointed to enforce morals, and edicts were issued against gambling, drinking, prostitution, and narcotics. Furthermore, a poll tax on Hindus was imposed in 1679.
He formulated an administration system that was inspired by the previous administration system followed in India, as well as the Persian and Central Asian styles of administration. Known for his effective methods of administration, Akbar built a strong foundation for his successors. Akbar’s whole administration system can be categorised into four departments: Central administration, Provincial administration, Military administration and the Land revenue system. Central administration: Akbar had the ultimate authority as all the power of the system was centralised – which essentially included the military, judiciary and religious aspects, and he usually abided by the Shariat or Islamic law. Every officer was appointed directly by the emperor rather than his superior.
Again like James II, Aurangzeb knew the art of making enemies. The imperialist designs and narrow religious policy of Aurangzeb turned the Rajputs, reliable supporters of the Imperial dynasty, into foes. The wanton destruction of Hindu temples and the re- imposition of jizyah (1679) and other political and social indignities on the Hindus led to the rising of the Satnamis, the Bundelas and the Jats. In Punjab, the Sikhs to the last man rose against the empire paralyzing Imperial administration in the
He became a close ally of Libya and Saudi Arabia which catered for much of the country’s budgetary support. This is because shortly after attaining the presidency Amin fell out with the British and Israeli governments. He had also declared an economic war expelling all dual citizens of Asian origins most of whom had British citizenship. These actions infuriated the West and soon efforts to remove him from power were orchestrated. Yet at the time he took office, Intra-religious conflicts within Islam were at their height.
After cementing his control over Mewar, Rana amalgamated his troops to strike down the internally disturbed empire of Malwa which was under the governance of Mehmood Khilji. Malwa was being torn by protests and oppositions. Mehmood Khilji was suspicious with the role of his Wajir Medini Rai who was also a Rajput. To resist the Rajput attack the weak Mehmood Khilji begged aid from the Gujarat Badshah Bahadur Shah and Sultan Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi. Rajput Medini Rai aided Rajput Rana and thus was announced the War between the Rajputs and the Muslims to curb the powers of the Muslims in Northern India.
After the French and Indian War, the British and the colonists had to face rising tensions and problems resulting from the war. Due to a massive debt from two wars, the British king had to recover as quickly as possible. Since the British considered the war started in the colonies, the blame was placed on the colonists and thus the British became more involved in the colonies. Due to increased economic policies and tyrannic rulership from 1763 to 1783, ideas of American independence changed drastically from wanting fair representation to complete freedom from the crown. In the beginning of 1763-1783, the colonists viewed themselves as everyday British citizens.
How Effective was Gandhi? “It was inevitable that Britain should some day refuse to rule India and that India should some day refuse to be ruled.” Mahatma Gandhi is known as one of the 20th century’s most influential people and is seen in India as the Father of the Nation. How he achieved such status was through his attempts at protest, negotiation and non cooperation through his philosophy of Satyagraha to better the lives of the Indian people. While in the end his policies got the job done, one can ask if unwavering nonviolence really was the most effective way at ousting the British from India. Though failed non cooperation movements show Gandhi’s policy as being somewhat ineffective, analysis of the of the Salt March, its results and the way that Gandhi was able to rally followers show its importance.
He was one of those people who have suffered a lot of oppression from the British because he was against them and worked a great deal to raise the awareness among the fellow Pashtuns( people of the North West Frontier Province) that they have to stand up against the British rule and free India from the tyranny of the British as they were neglected in terms of political representation, social equality as well as educational opportunities. This led him to open an educational institution in his birthplace