She was originally removed from the throne due to her religion but gained it back with her large group of supporters. Her father didn’t agree with the Catholic Church resulting in the protestant Church of England. Mary’s cousin Lady Jane succeeded Mary’s brother King Henry VI after his death in 1558 when he was just fifteen years old. He appointed Lady Jane because she was a protestant like himself. Edward tried to keep the crown from Mary because he knew she would try to change England back to Catholicism.
The initial years of Charles I’s reign beginning in 1516 as King of Aragon, and King of Castile jointly with his mother Joanna, saw a slowdown in religious change. Charles’ upbringing in the Netherlands hindered his support in Spain, and his accession to the throne of the Holy Roman Empire in 1519 meant that he had to simultaneously oversee the affairs of two sizeable territories. Therefore, religious reforms were slow to actualise under Charles. As a result, absenteeism and pluralism that were commonly observed in Spanish parishes were not dealt with, and the teaching of Catholic doctrine among the laity was of varying standards. Hence, it could be argued that the paucity of religious change under Charles I worsened the state of religion and spiritual conditions in the kingdom, and more was lost than gained as a result.
The most widely practiced religion was the Church of England (also referred to as the New Religion or the Established Church) which was the established state religion decided by the queen. The New Religion was a sort of settlement between the two religions of Catholicism and Protestantism. Queen Elizabeth I was the leader of the Church of England. When Queen Elizabeth was excommunicated from the Catholic Church, she decided that anyone who didn't agree with her beliefs could be considered a traitor and would be executed.
He took a non military/ no war approach to dealing with foreign affairs while Henry VIII took a more confrontational approach, for example his invasion of France. Henry VII established good trade relations with the Happisburgh Empire (Germany and Austria) and France. He also used marriage to make alliances with other foreign countries and to keep the peace between countries. One example of this is when he married his son Arthur to Catherine of Aragon from Spain. Sadly, Arthur died, but King Henry VII, not wanting to make Catherine’s father angry arranged a marriage between Catherine and his next son Henry VIII.
The King was worried that without a son, other countries could overthrow the kingdom easily. Since Catherine was originally married to King Henry’s brother, the king believed that he was being cursed with no sons as a punishment for going against the bible. King Henry also wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon because he was in love with Anne Boleyn during his marriage. Because the Catholic doctrine did not allow for a divorce at the time, King Henry asked the pope to annul Henry’s marriage instead. This clearly did not work, but the king found another way to get what
Shanti Gurung History 101 Final Exam Professor Montague 12/06/2015 1. As some 16th and 17th c. leaders sought to strengthen their control over both the legislative and administrative machinery of their respective kingdoms, others witnessed the destruction of absolutism as their principle governing philosophy. What obstacles did English royalty face in their effort to establish an absolute monarchy in the early decades of the 17th century? (Hint: Remember the tactics monarchs employed to achieve absolutism.)
This led to the imperial crisis as citizens were confused about which legitimate ruler and legal policies should they obey at that time. Another factor leading to Spanish American Revolution was actually similar to that of North American Revolution and French Revolution. The weak government raised taxes and tariffs for the citizens and traders. Mercantilism was the main reason for the increase of tariffs. Traders were restricted to import goods outside France while export brought benefits and profits to France in rulers’ point of view.
He got his divorce and stayed on the throne” (Hung). In addition to the fall of Queen Catherine, others were punished for dishonoring the king’s commands. This included, the king’s Minister, Cardinal Wolsey, who “failed to get the divorce from Rome” (David 420 ). Evidently, Henry VIII was willing to do anything it took to get rid of people who dissatisfied him. This connects to the Code of Chivalry because similar to the relationship between knights and their King, Henry VII expected his wives and court members to maintain their loyalty.
Martin Luther did not set out to separate or be excommunicated from the church, only to reform the church to be more pure, as he saw it was becoming corrupt due to the greed of the papacy. He is considered a radical for challenging the power of the Pope and then current views of papacy. His attempts to call for reform and regression back to a more orthodox church led to a view of him as conservative. A radical is defined as “someone favoring extreme changes in existing views, habits, conditions, or institution”
The Age of Enlightenment was a period of time when a movement of intellectuals strove to create tolerance of religion, separation of state and church, as well as removing complete power of the monarch. The Glorious Revolution of 1688, followed many Enlightenment principles. The cause of this revolution was the people’s displeasure with the Catholic king, James II, in hopes of turning the country to Protestantism, William of Orange, the king of Holland, and his wife Mary II, James oldest child. This quick and almost bloodless revolution put William of Orange of the English throne, gaining Protestants religious freedom, but suppressed the freedoms of Catholics. Although the Glorious Revolution was fueled in part by religious intolerance, ultimately the Glorious Revolution was a direct outcome of the Age of Enlightenment.
Prior to 1550, the European continent was dominated by Catholicism and had been for centuries. However, Protestantism first introduced by Martin Luther had begun to make inroads in the Holy Roman Empire and Nordic countries. Despite the growing popularity of these new religions, the majority of monarchs saw religious diversity as a weakness. Instead, most rulers pursued Religious uniformity to ensure political stability and strength. Examples of monarchs attempting to achieve religious university abound from Charles V in the Holy Roman Empire and Spain, to Rome, and to England.
In 1215 there was a lot of civil unrest as a result of King John’s abuse of power. A group of barons drafted the Articles of the Barons, which became the first version of the Magna Carta. Fearing that this rebellion would escalate into a full scale civil war and endanger his throne, King John signed the document, making it Europe’s first written constitution. While it was initially was meant to protect the interests of the noblemen, in time, the rights established by the Magna Carta were also extended to the commoners.
The King of England, Henry VIII, noted the anger and began a reform in the Catholic Church. He took the Church in Rome and reformed it. He changed some of the policies and renamed it the Church of England. However, some felt that the reform did not go deep enough. They were still upset.