# Kirchhoff's Circuit Laws

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Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits. They were first described in 1845 by German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff.[1] This generalized the work of Georg Ohm and preceded the work of Maxwell. Widely used in electrical engineering, they are also called Kirchhoff's rules or simply Kirchhoff's laws.
Both of Kirchhoff's laws can be understood as corollaries of the Maxwell equations in the low-frequency limit. They are accurate for DC circuits, and for AC circuits at frequencies where the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation are very large compared to the circuits.

Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) The current
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Uses 
A matrix version of Kirchhoff's current law is the basis of most circuit simulation software, such as SPICE. Kirchhoff's current law combined with Ohm's Law is used in nodal analysis.
KCL is applicable to any lumped network irrespective of the nature of the network; whether unilateral or bilateral, active or passive, linear or non-linear
Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL)  The sum of all the voltages around a loop is equal to zero. v1 + v2 + v3 - v4 = 0
This law is also called Kirchhoff's second law, Kirchhoff's loop (or mesh) rule, and Kirchhoff's second rule.
The principle of conservation of energy implies that
The directed sum of the electrical potential differences (voltage) around any closed network is zero, or:
More simply, the sum of the emfs in any closed loop is equivalent to the sum of the potential drops in that loop, or:
The algebraic sum of the products of the resistances of the conductors and the currents in them in a closed loop is equal to the total emf available in that loop.
Similar to KCL, it can be stated
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When the model is not applicable, the laws do not apply.
KCL, in its usual form, is dependent on the assumption that current flows only in conductors, and that whenever current flows into one end of a conductor it immediately flows out the other end. This is not a safe assumption for high-frequency AC circuits, where the lumped element model is no longer applicable.[2] It is often possible to improve the applicability of KCL by considering "parasitic capacitances" distributed along the conductors.[2] Significant violations of KCL can occur[3] even at 60 Hz, which is not a very high frequency.
In other words, KCL is valid only if the total electric charge, remains constant in the region being considered. In practical cases this is always so when KCL is applied at a geometric point. When investigating a finite region, however, it is possible that the charge density within the region may change. Since charge is conserved, this can only come about by a flow of charge across the region boundary. This flow represents a net current, and KCL is