CIRO Training Model

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Evaluation of training is the process through which a trainer/organisation measures the effectiveness of training sessions or programmes delivered. It is a continuous process that can be both formal and informal and it can happen both during the training (formative evaluation) and/or at the end of it (summative evaluation).
There have been identified three main reasons for evaluating training (Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2009):
 To justify training by showing how it contributes to organisational goals and objectives
 To decide whether to continue or discontinue specific training programmes
 To gain information on how to improve future training programmes
Current evaluation theories
Currently the Kirkpatrick’s model, even though
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It also includes the cost effectiveness of training or the Return on Investment (ROI) with improvements in productivity, reliability, customer satisfaction and quality.
In 1970 the CIRO evaluation model was introduced through Evaluation of Management Training: A Practical Framework, with Cases, for Evaluating Training Needs and Results (Warr, et al., 1970). The main difference between Kirkpatrick’s model and CIRO evaluation model is that CIRO compares the changes and measurements before and after the implementation of training. It is mostly used for management level training as it does not consider how the employee behaviour changes due to training. CIRO is the acronym that stand for: Context, Input, Reaction and Output.
 CONTEXT: it is about determining the training gap or processes improvements required and subsequently design the learning outcomes in accordance with them.
 INPUT: here we determine the effectiveness of the programme reflected in the design, planning, management and delivery. It also takes into the account the efficient use of the existing resources to maximise the
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The cost effectiveness of the training programme is determined by comparing monetary benefits gained from the training program expressed in value of money against the costs of the training programme. In most of the cases the Return of Investment will be calculated as percentage or cost/benefit ratio.

Kirkpatrick, D. L., 1975. Techniques for evaluating programmes. Parts 1,2,3,4. s.l.:ASTD.
Kirkpatrick, D. L. & Kirkpatrick, J. D., 2009. Evaluating Training Programmes: The four levels. Oakland: CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Maynooth University, 2017 d. Certificate in Training and Continuing Education, Module Four: The Adult Learner and Training Design. Maynooth: Maynooth University.
Phillips, J. J., 2003. Return on Investment in Training and Performance Improvement Programs. 2nd edition ed. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Spearhead Training, n.d. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 26 March 2018].
Warr, P. B., Bird, M. & Rackham, N., 1970. Evaluation of Management Training: A Practical Framework, with Cases, for Evaluating Training Needs and Results. s.l.:Gower

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