Knee Joint Case Study

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INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis of knee joint is supposed to be the most prevalent chronic joint disease. The incidence of osteoarthritis of knee is on a rise because of many factors like complex mechanics of knee joint, high prevalence of obesity and increased life expectancy which leads to increase in number of older individuals. Knee joint is subjected to excessive stress as it is used in almost all activities of daily living. Knee is important for activities like walking, climbing stairs, and rising from a chair, sitting, squatting and other activities. Chronic pain of knee joint may cause inability to perform daily activities. It is the main reason due to which patients seek treatment. Treatment options includes many non-pharmacological,…show more content…
REVIEW OF LITRATURE ANATOMY OF KNEE JOINT The embryological development of knee joint occurs from the leg bud in the 4th week. The formation of femur, tibia and fibula occurs in the 6th week. The knee joint embryologically arises from blastemal cells with the formation of the patella, cruciate ligaments and meniscus in the 7th week.22 Knee joint is formed by two condylar joints between the femoral condyles (medial and lateral both) and the corresponding tibial condyles. Knee joint also has a gliding joint between the patella and the corresponding femur articular surface. The fibula is not involved directly in forming the articular surface of the knee joint.23 Figure 1: Knee joint. The joint between the femur and the tibia is a complex type of synovial joint. The joint between the patella and the femur is a gliding type of synovial joint. The articular surfaces of the femur, tibia, and patella are covered by hyaline type cartilage.23 CAPSULE The capsule surrounds the sides and posterior aspect of the joint. It is attached to the margins of the articular surfaces. The capsule is absent at the front of the knee…show more content…
The menisci improve congruency between the femoral and condyles of tibia during this movement.27 Figure 8: Articular surfaces of knee joint (A- In extension, B- In flexion). EXTRACAPSULAR LIGAMENTS The ligamentum patellae is attached to the lower border of the patella superiorly and to the tibia tuberosity inferiorly. It is continuation of the central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon.28 The cordlike lateral collateral ligament is attached superiorly to the lateral condyle of the femur and inferiorly to the head of the fibula. The tendon of the popliteus muscle is present between the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral meniscus.28 The medial collateral ligament is a flat band attached superiorly to the medial femoral condyle and inferiorly to the tibia shaft. It is also attached to the border of the medial meniscus.28 The oblique popliteal ligament is a tendon arising from the semimembranosus muscle. It reinforces the posterior aspect of the capsule.28 Figure 9: Extracapsular ligaments of knee

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