Joints allow movement in the human body. The bones forming the joint are held together by ligaments. The 3 types of joints fibrous or immovable an example would be the skull. Cartilaginous or slightly moveable an example would be the vertebrae. Synovial or freely movable would include, ball and socket for example the hip.
Then finally there are 26 bones in your vertebral column, these are the bones that run down your back including the sacrum and the coccyx. The appendicular part of the skeletal system supports the appendages of vertebrates. The appendicular skeleton includes the arms, hands legs, the shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle. Of the 206 bones in the human body 126 of these make up the appendicular skeleton. Due to the appendicular bones being found in the hands, arms and legs they allow more movement than possible with the axial skeleton found at the core.
Cortical bones, also known as compact bones, form the hard-external layer of all bones that helps protect and strengthen the medullary cavity, which is filled with bone marrow. Within the cortical bones are lamellae called osteons. Osteons are aligned in the same direction along lines of stress, which hold the bone’s blood vessels and nerve fibers. These bones primarily help to resist bending and fracturing. Trabecular bones, also known as spongy bones, form the inner layer of all bones that helps to reduce the density of bones allowing the ends of long bones to compress when subject to stress.
Tx Recommendations: To alleviate frustration, explain the muscles of the rotator cuff and how cupping is achieved was described. The rotator cuff is made of four muscles working in unison to stabilize the G/H joint. The subscapularis originates at the subscapular fossa of the scapula and inserts at the lesser tubercle of the humerus. Its function is to medially rotate the shoulder at the G/H joint and stabilize the head of the humerus in the G/H joint while helping protect and stabilize the head of the humerus in the G/H joint. The supraspinatus originates at the supraspinatus fossa of the scapula and inserts at the greater tubercle of the humerus.
BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Clinical Background 2.1 The human spine The human spine (also referred to as vertebral column or spinal column) is a bony structure in the middle of the back starts at the base of the skull and continues to the pelvis. It consists of vertebrae (small bones) and joints (intervertebral disks) together to form a flexible and stable spinal column. The spinal cord and nerve roots are preserved by the vertebral body, supports the body and responsible for carrying weight. The disks allow movement in the spine and have a shock absorbing.
The lower end of the humerus has two rounded knobs the lateral and medial condyles. Between the two of these is a hole that extends completely through the bone, this is called the supratrochlear foramen. The ulna and radius act as one bone and are held together firmly by ligaments and always move together. The upper end of the ulna has a hook like process that fits perfectly in the supratrochlear foramen of the humerus. On the ulna there is a ridge called the trochlear notch, this fits against and rotates between the medial and lateral condyles on the humerus.
The protective cartilage on the ends of bones breaks down, causing pain, swelling and problems moving the joint. Bony growths can develop, and the area can become inflamed. The major symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Some people can have swelling, tenderness and grating or crackling sound when moving (NHS,n.d). These are the symptoms Mohamed reported to the doctor.
Torn knee ligament Causes: Torn knee ligament occurs when at least one of the main ligaments inside the knee gets sprained and the condition gets to harsher so the ligament ruptures. Basically, there are four main ligaments; Medial collateral ligament(MCL), Lateral collateral ligament(LCL), Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and Posterior cruciate ligament(PCL). All these ligaments have different functions. - MCL is located between femur and tibia. It helps protect the knee joint from the outer side forces, and it controls the amount of movement of knee.
Dentin is the second hardest mineralized substance, contains living tissue, and contains a plethora of nerves that connect down into the root of the tooth and jaw bone. Pulp is underneath the protective layer of dentin, is located in the center of the tooth, and is composed of soft connective tissue that has a complex bundle of nerves. The cementum is the layer of connective tissue that acts like glue and holds the roots of teeth in the gums and jawbone, but not to be confused with the periodontal ligament. This ligament is also tissue, but it holds the teeth themselves against the jaw bone. The final segment of the tooth is the root.
Pressure epiphysis is the ‘’secondary centre of ossification that forms at the articular end of a long bone”. Pressure is involved in the formation of joints. The pressure epiphysis assists transmitting the weight of the body. For example, the head of the femur as a component of the hip joint complex, also the head of the humerus, this forms a part of the shoulder complex.