Desimone, Werner and Harris (2002) added further by citing that the organized learning activities allows the employees in the organization, regardless of their position in the company to be equipped with adequate knowledge, ability, skills and behaviours to fulfill the requirement of the work for the present as well the future. The human resource development revolves around three primary activities which are training, education and development. Each of the human resource development activities have a certain focus attached to them. Training is an aspect of human resource development that mainly focuses on educating employees with skills and knowledge related to their current work and/or position. Similar to training, education, as the word implies, focuses on educating employees for future endeavours.
Smart is a Professor of Sociology and has written a numerous academic books and scholarly articles that have been widely cited. Justifying Sociological Knowledge: From Realism to Interpretation (2008) has been cited sixty time. Author, Isaac Reed is an associate professor of Sociology at the University of Colorado with a Ph. D in
The Strategy is aimed to improve communication and engagement with the employees to create a well-informed workforce, which in return is able to communicate effectively with all stakeholders. The Strategy shows how effective communications can be achieved to: • Ensure pertinent business information is effectively communicated to and from all stakeholders. • Raise employees’ awareness on all business related matters in the company. • Sustain a culture of two-way
But the authors say that portability intuition in fact a criterion of reliability hence active externalism does not undermined by it. They also go further by pointing that maybe brain evolved in a way that those reliable external features are considered in cognitive processes. It makes extended cognition a core cognitive
Utilitarianism is a highly acclaimed theory that is morally based on consequentialism. In essence, consequentialism is the ideology that justifies its action by producing the greater good (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Some may refer to the principle of utility as the greatest happiness principle. Utilitarianism was fully developed by a British philosopher named John Stuart Mill. There are two types of utilitarianism: Act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism.
In 1985, the concept of TPB was proposed by Icek Ajzen to improve the predictive power of the theory of reasoned action by including perceived behavioral controls (Pai & Huang, 2011). Southey (2011) posits that literature is replete with research which has used the theory of planned behavior. Further argue that this theory can be used to assess the individual’s decision on behavior. TPB is the “one of most widely used models in explaining and predicting individual behavioral intention and acceptance of information technology” (Sadeghi & Farokhian, 2011). Further, they describe “TPB is an attitude-intention-behavior model which posits that an individual’s behavior is determined by perceived behavioral control and intention.
An experiment by Eliaz and Schotter (2010) showed people were willing to pay for information about a decision they were planning to make, despite knowing this information would not affect the decision. All this new information did was increase their confidence in original beliefs, reflecting real-life decision-making. The most robust explanation is based on Festinger’s Dissonance Theory. Essentially, Festinger’s (1962) theory states that the preferred state of mind is for our cognition, which involves attitudes, emotions, and beliefs, to be consistent. If this is not
TRAINING: DEVELOPMENT: Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and competencies as a result of teaching. Training is a program organized by the organization to develop knowledge and skills in the employees as per the requirement of the job. Development teaches how to become more productive and effective at work and at the company. Since Tesco aims to expand and diversify, that required the business to select the right people, in the right place, because customers’ needs and wants are different and the culture of each area varies. Tesco need to have flexible employee who are able to adapt the change in order to satisfy the customer.
The Theory of Planned Behaviour suggests that attitude towards behaviour, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control, in conjunction shape individual behavioural intentions and behaviour (Sniehotta, Presseau & Araújo-Soares, 2014). The theory is well recognised by researchers, professionals and policy makers and is deemed the dominant theoretical approach to guide research on health-related behaviour. However, regardless of the theory’s popularity, it is essential to determine if the theory can, in fact, be deemed a ‘good theory’. Several different sets of criteria for evaluation of theories exists, this assignment will use the six criteria of a viable theory as proposed by Cramer (2013), to assess the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The six criteria include; comprehensiveness, precision and testability, parsimony, empirical validity, as well
But with proper planning, working with applicable or fitted spectrum learning levels and team work among the employees with one goal, the Organizational Development can be effectively implemented through the defined, achievable and measurable goals and objectives of the business. Since change is inevitable and constant, good leadership within the organization should also consider. The proper training needs can be assess, work advancement opportunities, developed skills and knowledge can be given by the management after accurately assessing its employees from top to bottom, as well as its operational system as a whole. Thus, it is analysed that change is not hindrance to work progress and advancement. It is but an opportunity to exceed what is expected