A vital "knowledge gap" is addressed in this experiment, that is to study the effect of stimulants and depressants, such as ethanol, melatonin, epinephrine, and dopamine on HR, individually and in a mixture. Said depressant and stimulant chemicals were administered to daphnia individually and afterwards, in combinations. The motivation for research in this area was to explore whether two select depressants or stimulants when administered together have a synergistic, antagonistic or no effect on HR. Data was determined in the form of Beats Per Minute (BPM). The data was analyzed by plotting the calculated BPM for each test solution from each daphnia. This study was designed to discover the effect of the chemicals on daphnia HR. The results of …show more content…
Daphnia are grown as fish food, and used to test ecotoxicity. Ecotoxicology is defined as, "the branch of toxicology concerned with the study of toxic effects, caused by natural or synthetic pollutants, to the constituents of ecosystems, animal (including human), vegetable and microbial, in an integral context” (Truhaut, 1977). The experiment discussed in this lab report was performed on daphnia, exploiting their transparency which renders them the ideal organism, to test effects of various stimulus on cardiac activity. Past research studies have found ethanol to produce a depressant effect, one similar to the depressant effects of melatonin, and GABA. In contrast, Corotto (2010) has experimented on stimulants, e.g. nicotine, and found an approximate 20% increase in HR. The data presented in this lab report was observed manually. In this experiment, cardiac activity is being determined via measurement of i.e. heart rate. (HR) For this experiment, the daphnia was subjected to different chemicals via submersion. These chemicals were used as stimuli to prompt altered cardiac activity. The purpose of this experiment, is to test whether two select depressants or stimulants, when administered together, produce a synergistic, antagonistic or no effect on …show more content…
melatonin and ethanol, will produce a depressant effect on cardiac activity, i.e. decrease HR. It is predicted that stimulant chemicals, e.g. epinephrine and dopamine, will produce a stimulant effect on cardiac activity, i.e. increase HR. It is predicted that the two stimulant, when administered together, will produce a synergistic effect on HR, i.e. increase HR more than in comparison to when administered individually. Additionally, the two depressants, when administered together, will produce a synergistic effect on HR, i.e. decrease HR more than in comparison to when administered individually. Lastly, when the depressant and stimulant are administered to the Daphnia magna in combination, an antagonistic effect will be observed, i.e. the depressant and stimulant chemicals will negate each other resulting in HR within 5% deviation of the base line daphnia
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Corotto, F., Ceballos, D., Lee, A., & Vinson, L. (2010). Making the Most of the Daphnia Heart Rate Lab: Optimizing the Use of Ethanol, Nicotine & Caffeine. The American Biology Teacher , 176-179. The purpose of this article was to test the effects of chemicals on Daphnia magna.
Daphnia Magna are small crustaceans that are excellent for observing the effect of depressants on their nervous system. The purpose of this specific experiment is to observe the effect of ethanol, aspirin, and caffeine on daphnia’s heart rate. Not only do these chemicals affect heart rate, but they also affect the frequency of reproduction, number of eggs produced, and body structure. Pesticides similar to these chemicals can be released into the environment and daphnia re useful in monitoring toxicity levels. The agents being tested in this experiment can be administered to determine the effects of hormones, stimulants, antidepressants, and neurotransmitters.
The Ativan I take for anxiety. The Ambien I sometimes have to take to sleep…” (Pg. 279).
In the book, “Dangerous or Safe?, Cara Natterson provides readers with information on the health aspects of foods, medicines, and chemicals. Within her book, Natterson divides the contents into three part. Part two, titled “Drinks”, has four different chapters. One of the chapters, chapter eight, focuses on caffeine, while chapter eleven mentions energy drinks.
(Tyler Head, October 2009) C. Dimethyltryptamine has different effects on different bodies. Just like some people are very happy drinking alcohol, and others have to steer clear of it because it throws them into fits of rage. 1. Different people have reported ‘seeing” or “feeling” different things throughout the duration of their experience.
Nonetheless, besides fish, many other kinds of poikilothermic animals, such as snakes and frogs, use lungs instead of gills to breathe, and further researches may be conducted to explore if caffeine has an effect on their metabolism. For example, forty northern leopard frogs with similar body size will be captured and divided into twenty trials, and each two frogs will be tested in the same control and experimental conditions as the goldfish metabolism experiment did. The collected slopes of oxygen concentration will then be converted into oxygen consumption rate and analyzed by the paired t-test. If the difference in the oxygen consumption rate between the control and experimental groups is statistically significant, this experiment will show that caffeine affects the metabolism of frogs, one kind of poikilotherms that use lungs to
This type of shock occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood effectively. This is evident to patients who have had myocardial infarction, such as John’s case. In this illness, the heart has decreased contractility resulting to decreased cardiac output. Such decrease will stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to activate the compensatory mechanism by increasing the heart rate as evident in John’s vital sign to increase the peripheral pressure and ventricular
E.g. 99mTc-tetrofosmin (Myoview, GE healthcare), 99mTc-sestamibi (Cardiolite, Bristol-Myers Squibb now Lantheus Medical Imaging). Following this, the heart rate is raised to induce myocardial stress, either by exercise or pharmacologically with adenosine, dobutamine or dipyridamole (aminophylline can be used to reverse the effects of
METHODS Animals The present experiments were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of our university (No. IZ 27 - 117, 139). The studies were conducted in male C57/ BL6ｊ mice (21–27 g). The mice were housed in a controlled light (lighted from 8:00 to 20:00) and temperature (23–25°C) environment. Food and water were freely available. Drugs Morphine hydrochloride (Takeda Pharmaceutical, Tokyo, Japan) was dissolved in physiological saline.
Hypotheses: Do you expect heat to be a chronotropic factor? Yes Do you expect heat to be an inotropic factor? Yes Procedure and Results: Control Heart Rate (After rinsing) beats/min Experimental procedure Heart Rate after treatment beats/min Change in Heart Rate beats/min Strength of Contraction after treatment compared to normal (stronger or weaker) Baseline rate: 72 Continuously drop warm Frog Ringer’s onto the heart 48 -24 Weaker Rate after rinsing: 72 Continuously drop cold Frog Ringer’s onto the heart 60 -12 Weaker
Pros and Cons of Marijuana Legalization Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. More than half of American adults have tried using marijuana at least once in their life. You may have read or heard stories on how marijuana use was mostly linked to people who were very vocal with their opinions. Seeing their favorite performers during a live concert may have been the start of the spreading of this illegal drug which has caused so many lives. When experts found out about the ill effects of marijuana, people who were found to be using them were put behind bars.
The functions of the human cardiopulmonary system can be broken down into two, circulatory system and the respiratory system. The main goal of these two systems is to maintain homeostasis in our body. Homeostasis can be described as a type of condition where the internal continuity of an individual has to keep steadiness, regardless of any external changes from the outside environment. External changes from the outside environment may include factors such as excitement, stress, exercise, diet, and much more. Exercise can be carried out because the human body can endure a high level of exercise during a prolonged period of time.