Development of buprenorphine as an analgesic autoinjector and its quality control parameters 4.1 Introduction The benefit of a drug in any condition is fulfilled when it attains the therapeutic concentration in the body to reduce the symptoms or to cure diseases. To attain the therapeutic concentration, the administered drug has to be better absorbed and distributed in the body. The immediate effect produced by the drug depends upon its faster absorption and distribution. The drug delivery system also plays a role in the period of effect production (Rao et al, 2012). There are a number of drug delivery routes like oral, parenteral, inhalation, transdermal, sublingual, vaginal, ocular and rectal.
Daphnia Magna are small crustaceans that are excellent for observing the effect of depressants on their nervous system. The purpose of this specific experiment is to observe the effect of ethanol, aspirin, and caffeine on daphnia’s heart rate. Not only do these chemicals affect heart rate, but they also affect the frequency of reproduction, number of eggs produced, and body structure. Pesticides similar to these chemicals can be released into the environment and daphnia re useful in monitoring toxicity levels. The agents being tested in this experiment can be administered to determine the effects of hormones, stimulants, antidepressants, and neurotransmitters.
Mechanical shaking was applied and the concentration of DOX was assessed by the use of UV/VIS spectrophometer. The results showed that as the PH decrease, the drug release increases, proofing that GCS-g-DEAP nanogel are sensitive to the change in PH. Therefore GCS-g-DEAP nanogel can be useful in targeting cancer associated with acidic PH. (Muk Oh et al., 2010) 3.2Invivo On the other handin vivo study is done within the living organism. The aim of preforming this study is to evaluate the effect produced by the drug on the body (pharmacodynamics) as well as the effect of the body on the drug (pharmacokinetics).
Prolongs levodopa action Useful in wearing off events and motor fluctuations Increases t1/2 of levodopa Increases the availability of levodopa in CNS Useful in advanced cases of Parkinson’s disease Useful in on-off phenomenon Mechanism Intracerebral degradation of dopamine is retarded by inhibition of MAO-B Inhibits metabolism of levodopa by COMT Drug Name MAO-B (Monoamine oxidase B) inhibitors Selegiline Rasagiline COMT (Catecholamine o-methyl transferse) inhibitors Entacapone, Tolcapone Sr No 5. 6. Disadvantages Dizziness, lethargy, anticholinergic effects, and sleep disturbance, Nausea and vomiting Anticholinergic side effects Sedation and mental confusion in elderly more pronounced Advantages Modest anti Parkinsonian effect Can be used as short course with levodopa for motor fluctuations Less side effects compared to
Decreased blood flow to the kidneys activates the renin angiotensin system. Renin is released, which activates angiotension to produce angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is also a potent vasoconstrictor, which causes both arterial and venous vasoconstriction. Angiotensin II also stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone, which results in sodium and water reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys. The increase in sodium reabsorption raises the serum osmolarity and stimulates the release the antidiuretic hormone ADH from the posterior pituitary gland.
Then, antibiotics, surgery, anti-inflammatory agents, or obstetric procedures may regulate hemostasis, mainly in chronic DIC. However, in acute phase of DIC, two categories of treatment are available as follows: treatments that slow the coagulation process and therapies that substitute the coagulation factors and the missing platelets. Heparin also can be used to stop the uncontrolled stimulation of the coagulation cascade due to the antithrombotic properties. Careful monitoring of heparin is required because the heparin can worsen the bleeding. Red blood cell administration, thawed frozen plasma, and platelets transfusion may be use based on the patient
These receptor elements then respond to the changes in H+ concentration in the interstitial fluid in the brain, causing ventilatory and circulatory adjustments during hypercapnia and chronic disturbances of acid-base balance (O'Regan & Majcherczyk, 1982). Similarly, the peripheral chemoreceptors also sense the increase in pH and would signal to the respiratory centers via the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. The peripheral chemoreceptor drive can modulate central chemosensitivity during hypercapnia (O'Regan & Majcherczyk, 1982). Both central and peripheral chemoreceptors would send fewer impulses to the respiratory centers (central: the medulla oblongata, peripheral: the aortic and carotid bodies). This would result in a decrease in muscle contraction, which would subsequently lower ventilation.
It is like a transmitter in the brain and is important for the signals that it sends to the central nervous system and according to the article I found on Functions of Dopamine, “it is what allows information to be passed from one neuron to another”. (Functions of Dopamine, 2018) Some of the functions of dopamine are; motor activity, cognition, emotion, and reward. There are also disorders that are associated with having a low amount of dopamine such as depression and movement disorders. Some of the more serious disorders are schizophreniz, ADHD, OCD, Tourette’s syndrome, and drug abuse. Then if there is a death of dopamine neurons it causes Parkinson’s disease, where a person is robbed of the ability to have smooth and controlled movements.
E.g. 99mTc-tetrofosmin (Myoview, GE healthcare), 99mTc-sestamibi (Cardiolite, Bristol-Myers Squibb now Lantheus Medical Imaging). Following this, the heart rate is raised to induce myocardial stress, either by exercise or pharmacologically with adenosine, dobutamine or dipyridamole (aminophylline can be used to reverse the effects of
• Administration errors • Transcription errors • Failure to follow proper medical guidelines ( double checking the right drug, doses, routing, time and patient Epinephrine is a catecholamine that stimulates alpha (α) , beta 1 (β-1) and beta 2 (β-2)adrenergic effector dose dependent. Epinephrine influences its effects on the heart, vascular and other smooth muscles. It’s usually administrated for both anaphylaxis and myocardial infarction. Epinephrine is available in different concentrations and it is administered in a variable type of specific to each indication. Doses for Epinephrine Base on Indication: Indication Dose Administration Anaphylactic 0.3-0.5mg of 1:1,000 Intramuscular (IM) Anaphylactic 0.1mg of 1:10,000 IV push over 5 minutes shock Myocardial 1mg of 1:10,000 IV push Infarction concentration What could’ve been done by the medical team to prevent these errors?
Stimulants or uppers are drugs that increase arousal while those that decrease arousal are termed depressants or downers. Conversely, performance in humans are measured according to perception, cognitive or motor abilities whereas behaviors in nonhumans are measured through spontaneous motor activity, respondent and operant conditioning which play a role in understanding why and how organisms use drugs. The effects of drugs are also analyzed through their stimulus properties which are looked at as “their ability to act as a discriminative stimulus in a discriminative learning task” (p.