Link to reality: Both Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning and Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning can be used every day in an ECCE setting. Today many school systems and childhood authorities follow Skinner’s and Pavlov’s theory by using the approach of positive reinforcement. This encourages good behaviour in the child making the behaviour more likely to be repeated again as they are rewarded and praised for their efforts in reading, writing and general learning. It is important that children’s efforts in a learning setting are rewarded as this will encourage the child to perform to the best of their ability. School authorities only use negative reinforcement as a last resort.
This aim demonstrates ‘Learner-centred ideology’ as the curriculum is focused on home environment where parents and community comes into play (McLachlan et al., 2013). The framework contains learning goals that gives educators an idea of what the children should have achieved at the end of their kindergarten education. Thus ‘Social efficiency ideology’ is used as the learning goals guide teachers to prepare the children for Primary 1 (McLachlan et al., 2013). ‘Learner-centred ideology’ is seen when principles which guide educators in planning, designing and facilitation of enriching learning experiences for young children are also included in the framework (McLachlan et al.,2013). According to The Kindergarten Curriculum Framework, teachers are considered facilitators of children’s learning and need to plan, facilitate,
Hence, a child who is effectively engaged in a prepared environment and who exercises freedom of choice can literally teach themselves. So, the role of Montessori teachers is to prepare their classrooms so that children are able to educate themselves. ( Morrison, Bacon, & Hall, 2014) Montessori thought that “it is necessary for the teacher to guide the child without letting him feel her presence too much, so that she may be always ready to supply the desired help, but may never be the obstacle between the child and his experience" (Montessori, 1967). The Montessori teacher explains key attitudes to implement this child-centered approach: • Make children the core of learning because, as Montessori said, “The teacher’s task is not to talk, but to prepare and arrange a series of motives for cultural activity in a special environment made for the child” (Dr. Montessori's Own
Because children learn things from the environment around them. It is important to teach the values of living a good life as well. As being teachers for the young children it’s very important to have the best knowledge of what is the social and moral development of children and how to develop these skills in the children and to know the strategies how to involve those with children in the schools. This assignment is given under the module of the social and moral development that is carried out in Avid College. This is a report that is written to share some information from a research done under the heading of ‘Importance of social and moral development of young children’ also there are some information on the ‘ Responsibilities and the procedure that schools will have and follow in order to instill moral and social development of the students.
One of the noteworthy factors that should be focused upon in order to gain insight into why people commit injustice to others or engage in pro social behaviour is “Morality”. Morality is internalised by children at a very early age and one of the factors that facilitate the internalization of moral standards is the socialization techniques utilised by their parents. Socialization is the process through which individuals acquire skills needed to function within their social group through the assistance of others, most notably their parents (Grusec, 2002). Through socialization, the individual internalizes societal norms signs and values.One of the key focus areas of socialization practices employed by parents are the internalization of morality in children. Traditionally morality has been conceived of as “a set of general and decontextualized principles, which orient both individuals’ own conduct and the interpretation of others’ conduct” (Sterponi, 2003).
They are turning around their approach into a focus on creating positive school climate and responsive classroom as part of holistic quality education based on child rights where there is effective teaching and classroom management, thus enhancing students’ learning experiences. The motivational psychology researchers discovered several useful approaches and practices that can be implemented in the classroom for effective learning to take place (Miller, 2012). Teachers are using differentiation to support teaching and learning. Differentiation can vary in pace, activities, resources, teaching and learning styles in an attempt to best meet the needs of individual student. Various teaching strategies such as cooperative learning, active learning, role play and games and pedagogic tools are being integrated in educational theories in meaningful and useful ways to encourage task or learning achievements.
Social solidarity means social order. Through education, children learn shared values and beliefs, whilst feeling part of the community, developing a sense of national identity. (Fulcher & Scott, 2011) Durkheim argued that schools should enforce rules, with punishments to follow if the rules are broken. This taught children self-discipline, understanding the importance of morals, and recognise that misconduct leads to a damaged society. (Haralambos & Holburn, 2008) Durkheim suggested: ‘It is by respecting the school rules that the child learns to respect rules in general, that he develops the habit of self-control and restraint simply because he should control and restrain himself.
Research question Higher order thinking becoming a part of the Malaysia Education Blueprint, which mean that school is implementing this into the school system by using a new trend to spark the young Malaysians learn and acquire new knowledge. Children need teacher’s additional support that would let them continue to access to the right guidance in order to reach their success. Teacher with high qualities and leadership is an important domain to make sure children would be developed in a holistic way and match with the Malaysia Education
This includes providing children with specific duties in the classroom, including them in the making of classroom rules and offering a choice of activities (Stipek & Byler, 2004). Effective management strategies will teach a child to better manage their emotions in the classroom (Rimm-Kaufman, Curby, Grimm, Nathanson, & Brock, 2009). Next he looks at the benefits of pairing classroom management with a rich classroom environment that encourages children’s imagination and creativity for fun yet exploratory activities that are stimulating (Daniels & Clarkson, A developmental approach to educating young children, 2010). This moves the child away from the negative stimulus (the lost presence of a love one) to a positive stimulus presenting itself as the optimistic classroom
By providing self-development by providing safe, colorful, intriguing toys and materials to foster curiosity.At each stage of early development, infant, toddler, and preschool children look around and try to make sense of their social and physical environments. They learn more about their expanding community and finally come to see themselves as tiny citizens. The evolution of each child’s social understandings about the world begins with self and family, expanding to the child care and educational setting. In developing these social inquiries, teachers first focus on what children know and are able to do. Then they help children scaffold additional learning to elaborate their understandings of the world around them.