• Jatropha plant is great for developing countries in terms of energy and jobs creation. •The biodiesel byproduct, glycerine, is profitable in itself. •The waste plant mass after oil extraction of jatropha plant can be used as a fertilizer. •The plant recycles 100% of the CO₂ emissions produced by burning the biodiesel. •The plant can be used to prevent and control erosion and to reclaim land.
Introduction: We have seen that the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is highly immediate, and that accompaniments to this functionality are ordinary. Carbonyl functionality reactive but that it also activates to hand carbon-hydrogen bonds (particularly alpha hydrogen’s) to go through a variety of substitution reactions.1 Carbonyl compounds can be explained by just four fundamental reaction types: Nucleophilic additions Nucleophilic acyl substitutions α-Substitutions Carbonyl condensations2 α-Substitutions: Alpha-substitution reactions take place at the site next to the carbonyl group the α-position and occupy the substitution of an α hydrogen atom by an electrophile, E,
INTRODUCTION Silver nanoparticles are particles of silver of between 1 nm and 100 nm in size. Some of the conventional methods of synthesis of silver nanoparticles are as follows:- 1) Reduction with Reducing Sugars Reducing sugars like glucose, fructose, maltose, maltodextrin, etc. except sucrose, and is the simplest method to reduce silver ions back to silver nanoparticles. If the pH is above 7 the glucose molecule in the reducing sugar will open its ring structure and attach to the surface of the nanoparticles, thereby acting as a weak stabilizing agent. 2) Citrate reduction A very common, method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles is citrate reduction.
These cations have a tendency to combine with anions (negatively charged ions) in the water to form stable salts. The type of anion found in these salts has therefore been used to distinguish between the two types of hardness-carbonate and non carbonate hardness (Table2). Table 2 shows that carbonate hardness is caused by Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions combined with anion (CO3 2- or HCO3 - or OH-) to form a salt. In contrast, non-carbonate hardness forms when Ca2+ and Mg2+ combine with anything other than carbonate, bicarbonate, and hydroxide ions. Carbonate hardness is sometimes called temporary hardness because it can be removed by boiling the water.
The same combination can be used to give the fizzy drink effect in medicines like ant–acid stomach powders. Compound with carboxyl group can be converted to esters easily. Thus it is used commercially as raw materials for the production of synthetic odors and flavors. Ester also have others uses such as ethyl acetate is a good solvent and can be use for manufacture of nail polish
potassium salts of cyanogens like potassium cyanide and potassium ferrocyanide . CONTENT: 1-potassium cyanide Potassium cyanide is a compound with structure KCN , it is color less crystals salts , its appearance is similar to sugar , it is soluble in water and highly toxic . we obtain KCN by treating HCN by
Nevertheless, away from the properties differences, both kind of compounds are crystalline. Inorganic mercury (Hg+ or Hg2+) in mercury salts also get formed. Salts of mercury (I) are insoluble in water except for the nitrate and perchlorate while salts of mercury (II) are rather soluble in water and due to their lipophilic properties are also soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol or ether. 2.Occurence It is rarely to find mercury as a native metal. It is found as ores being the cinnabar (HgS) the most common one.
Divya & Kumari, (2009) also studied the same change in acidity in the chemically preserved beverage. In herbal beverages the acidity was readily increased with the storage period and the same was observed by Yadav et al., (2010) and Naik et al.,
Abstract Amylases are enzymes capable of hydrolysing starch and related saccharides. The best known are alpha-amylase, beta-amylase and glucoamylase. Starch degrading enzymes like amylase has received attention of their biotechnological significance and economic benefits. Alpha amylases are one of the important and widely used enzymes whose spectrum of applications has widened in many sectors such as clinical, medicinal and analytical chemistry.The fungal isolates include Aspergillus species, Mucor species and Rhizopus species. The parameters such as optimal incubation period, pH and starch concentrations were considered in the study.