Morality is a set of values held by a person in making when judging and evaluating what is deemed right or wrong, good or bad (Brandt, 1959). When we talk about morality in counseling it’s about the reasoning by the counselor that has four levels. They are, personal intuition, ethical guidelines established by professional organizations, ethical principles and general theories of moral action (Kitchener, 1984). Ethics is described as adopted principles that has relations to man’s behavior and moral decision making (Van Hoose & Kottler, 1985). Ethics is often thought as a synonym to morality.
Pojman, begins by outlining two objectivist arguments and stating why people have been misled by relativist arguments. A quote taken from Gilbert Harman states different people will come to different conclusions instinctively on what they were taught as children and the surroundings as they grew up and declares himself a moral relativist. John Ladd believes in ethical relativism, in which moral righteousness and wrongness actions range from society to society, also an individual behavior depends on or is relative to where he belongs. Harman mainly spoke of the validity rather than the truth of moral principles. Relativism, as Pojman describes does tend to be more popular since each society has their own customs and there are no universal moral standards, behaviors depend on where they belong, therefore, there are no absolute or objective moral standards that account for all the people everywhere.
Kant argued that it was Hume's philosophy, flinched from the "dogmatism". However, in the changed context and something unlike Hume, Kant had just sense a source of moral norms. The changed context consisted in the fact that Kant does not ask how to justify all value judgments in the same way, rather than separately dealing with the so-called morality in the narrow sense, that is, the attitudes on which it is possible to agree all and make them subject to an obligation or duty and other value judgments in which it sets the request. This difference, which extends along ethic is well understood. You can consider that a good deal of long
One of them, It was written at that time by Richard De George, in his text “Business Ethics”5. A different approach is supported by Michael Davies in his work “Some Paradoxes of Whistleblowing”6 (Appear in the magazine Business and Professional Ethics Journal). David model know as (the theory of complicity)6 lists certain conditions to complete: 1) the disclosure must come from the institution where the agent works, 2) the agent must be a person working in the institution, 3) the organization, being legitimate practical actions that are ethically questionable, 4) the agent believes that he will be accomplice morally unacceptable acts if he doesn’t disclosed publicly. Also Davies consider that, the points 3 and 4 are understood as concrete knowledge, which the Agent considers justified and true (for it must have solid evidence to back their actions). It is important to mention, moreover, that several countries have legislated with varied and disparate impact regard to Whistleblowing in particular as regards the protection of persons that they have put into practice (Whistleblowing Protection Act, US, Public Interest Disclosure, UK and Australia, or the Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act, in Canada)7.
R. May notes that there is any problem of personality is a moral issue, that is, each person has a problem of its moral implications. Frequently asked in counseling and psychotherapy - "How should I live?" - is the essence of all moral systems. Then there is the second question of the degree of their own consultation process, of the nature and extent of the discussion of values Values consultant who participate in the process of counseling. If the answer to the first question is the problem or the consequence of mental and spiritual sickness client, but not as a subject of morality, the two versions of the extreme positions (8, p.83) may exist on the second question.
Incoherent convictions are necessary for moral development and in specific for evolving the type of rational and communicative moral convictions Brownlee favours. Public conscientious convictions require deep internal thought and deliberation in order for them to mature. Brownlee, in her dialogue fails to give way to the agent who is still weighing and deliberating to form moral convictions which is not known to others yet. Thus, these insightful discussions help us explore the nature of conscience and conscientious convictions and draw important conclusions concerning the justifiable protection of acts of civil disobedience. The discussions in this book give rise to new questions and challenges in the
Kant and the Lying Promise In “Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals”, Kant explores the subject of duty and the binding force of morality. Kant explores the morality of among many cases, this paper being focused particularly on the case of the lying promise. To determine the morality of such action, Kant provides the Formula of Universal Law, which relies on a maxim passing four steps in order to be considered moral. First, I will explain the Formula of Universal Law and focus on the ethical position of duty belonging to Kant’s deontological ethics. Next, I’ll present Kant’s lying promise case and will analyze his explanation of it being immoral through the Formula of Universal Law.
Also, we will define what hazing is considered. Lastly, we will review a few examples of Traditions and decide if they are Hazing or Tradition. Without ethics there is no way to gauge Business behaviors. The Ethical point of view from Utilitarianism is one of them. An Ethical beginning from the late 1800’s whose father was John Mill and Jeremy Bentham “Utilitarianism is an effort to provide an answer to the practical question