The basic concept of learning is based on this theory. The mental processes as they are being influenced by either intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors, which eventually results in learning acquisition of an individual. Knowledge systems of cognitive structures are actively constructed by learners based on pre-existing cognitive structures. The teacher facilitates learning by providing an environment that promotes discovery and assimilation/accommodation. The cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our environment.
1.5 Kohn’s Student Directed Learning Theory Kohn’s student-directed learning theory is an approach to the classroom management which may be particularly effective in the modern classroom environment. Student-directed learning will keep students motivated and teaches them to cooperate with each other sharing responsibilities and functions within their community. Kohn believes that the ideal classroom emphasizes on curiosity and cooperation above all, and that the student’s curiosity should determine what is taught. "Skillful educators tap students ' natural curiosity and desire to become competent. In a learning environment, teachers want to help students engage with what they are doing to promote deeper understanding" (Kohn, 1997c).
They are turning around their approach into a focus on creating positive school climate and responsive classroom as part of holistic quality education based on child rights where there is effective teaching and classroom management, thus enhancing students’ learning experiences. The motivational psychology researchers discovered several useful approaches and practices that can be implemented in the classroom for effective learning to take place (Miller, 2012). Teachers are using differentiation to support teaching and learning. Differentiation can vary in pace, activities, resources, teaching and learning styles in an attempt to best meet the needs of individual student. Various teaching strategies such as cooperative learning, active learning, role play and games and pedagogic tools are being integrated in educational theories in meaningful and useful ways to encourage task or learning achievements.
Additionally, the tasks need to be constructive and interlinked and provide a challenge to the students while also acting as a motivation factor. The adopting of effective teaching to match the personal strengths of the students ensures that a student’s learning outcome is achieved Holistic assessment should be encouraged to understand what the learner has captured on a learning
Communication with students I chose this criterion because teachers communicate with students for several independent, but related, purposes: they convey that teaching and learning are purposeful activities; they make that purpose clear to students, and they provide clear directions for classroom activities so that students know what to do; when additional help is appropriate, teachers model these activities. ---One example of a good classroom practise is: In the course of a presentation of content, the teacher asks students, “Can anyone think of an example of that?” 2. Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques I chose this criterion because it is important that questioning and discussion be used as techniques to deepen student understanding rather than serve as recitation, or a verbal “quiz” and because high-quality questions encourage students to make connections among concepts or events previously believed to be unrelated and to arrive at new understandings of complex material.---One example of a good classroom practise is: The teacher poses a question, asking every student to write a brief response and then share it with a partner, before inviting a few to offer their ideas to the entire
The relationship between affective and learning strategies is unclear, but positive emotional environment helps learning in general. The teacher can play an active role in the development and use of affective strategies by building a generally positive atmosphere in the classroom. This can happen to encourage and advise students to help them identify achievable goals and to work independent learning through personalization and activities by working in pairs and in groups. Examples Lower amounts of anxiety with relaxation techniques is a kind of affective strategy. affective strategies include maintaining attention, time management and reducing anxiety.
Dewey (1959) sees experience and education as being dialectically connected. Hence, to Dewey, the experiences that the teacher designs and creates in the classroom, e.g. tools, activities or the environment, have an impact on students’ learning. The experiences must be relevant, authentic and meaningful to the students for effective learning to take place. Besides individuals’ experiences, Dewey gives space for social experiences as well.
In schools today, many teachers influence Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) on their students in various classrooms to show the importance of group work and how working with others can be significantly helpful and also effective towards the improvement of grades. Peer assisted learning strategies have not only shown an improvement in students’ grades in school, but also serve the purpose of helping students learn to listen to others perspectives besides their own, and develop their own voice resulting in an increase in their own self-confidence. Peer-assisted learning strategies were created to serve the needs of those having difficulties in various academics, and are also used to aid English Language learners. These peer-tutoring programs are
During this process, I monitor the success of students individually to see whether any student needs further assistance in the certain area. Research shows that evidence-based teaching strategies have a huge impact on students learning (Wilson et al.,2006). Student centered approach is a principal of communicative language teaching. This evidence-based practice involves engaging students actively in learning which are relevant to the classroom. In my class room, I use different methods to teach my diverse learners, in which they solve problems, formulate questions of their own, discuss things and explain by them during the