Kombucha Case Study

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Chapter V
To study the mechanism of action of Kombucha

5.1: To study the mechanism of action of Kombucha by assessing peripheral utilization of glucose using rat hemidiaphragm

Introduction

Energy homeostasis is maintained by the integrated role of multiple organs and tissues such as the digestive system, pancreas, liver, muscles, adipose tissue and brain. Defects in the sensing energy needs, and the ability to respond appropriately, result in metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin is responsible for the conversion of simple monomers such as monosaccharides and amino acids into complex macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and glycogen. This is mainly achieved by increasing glucose uptake in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. The liver plays a unique role in normal physiology of the entire systems of the body. In postprandial nutrient metabolism it has first access to most ingested and absorbed nutrients. One of the most important roles of liver is to store and release glucose in fed and fasted conditions. In normal conditions, excess glucose after intake of food substantially leads to
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Among catechins, gallated catechins are better inhibitors than free catechins (Hara and Honda, 1990). catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase(Yilmazer-Musa et al., 2012) . Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase by flavonoids has been reported by Tadera et al, (2006). Based on the studies of Pereira et al, (2011), disaccharidases are influenced by flavonoids in the regulation of glucose absorption. Polyphenols has suggested to have efficacy of inhibition of GLUT 2 greater than SGLT1 (Farell et al., 2013). Shimizu et al, (2000) reported that green tea polyphenols, especially epicatechin gallate (ECG), inhibit SGLT1 in a competitive manner interacting as antagonist-like

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