1. Konfrontasi was a policy of confrontation by Indonesia from 1963 to 1965, in opposition to the formation of Malaysia from the Federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore. While there was no all-out war, there were numerous raids by Indonesian volunteers on targets within then-Malaysia, which included Singapore. The Philippines were aligned with Indonesia due to its claim for Sabah. It broke off diplomatic relation with Malaysia, and did not participate in the hostilities.
2. Prior to World War II, countries in South East Asia were colonized by European nations. Singapore and Malaysia were British colonies while Indonesia was under direct control by the Dutch. After the Japanese surrender in the Pacific, the British took over governance of Singapore and Malaysia. Indonesia proclaimed independence on 17 August 1945, two days after the surrender of the Japanese, with Sukarno declared as President and Mohammad Hatta as vice-president.
CAUSES OF KONFRONTASI
3. In the 1960s, several major events that took place in South East Asia raised tension within the region, which triggered Indonesia’s Konfrontasi campaign:
a. SUKARNO’S FOREIGN POLICY. In 1960, Sukarno began an independent Indonesian foreign policy, focused on the acquisition of Netherlands New Guinea (Current West Papua in Indonesia) as a residual issue from the Indonesian National Revolution , and to increase Indonesia 's international prestige. Indonesia had