Other theories which underpins authentic assessment is Experiential Learning Theory by David Kolb and Situated Learning Theory which was theorized by Lave and Wenger. Experiential learning occurs by making sense of direct everyday experiences. Concrete experiences provide the information that serves as a basis for reflection. On the other hand, Situated Learning Theory is learning in the same contexts in which concepts and theories are applied. Research has shown that real-life applied activities and problem-solving activities establish a contextual setting for many lessons, providing motivation and encouraging curiosity.
The relevance to the dimension of quality is that it is possible to identify the features of courses that foster a surface or deep approach (Entwistle, 2000). In addition, learning is argued as an activity that combines the aspects of ‘what’ and ‘how’ and, most importantly, how the two aspects are integrated during the learning process. The ‘what’ aspect concerns the activity of learning, and the ‘how’ aspect concerns the structure of a learning task (how learning is done). How the two aspects are merged inform whether students employ a deep approach or a surface approach to learning (Ramsden, 2003). Thus, if learning is focused on the content, e.g. when a text in itself is the object of learning, and the learning task is approached by organizing it into smaller separate parts, a surface approach to learning is adopted.
affective strategies include maintaining attention, time management and reducing anxiety. CONCLUSION Learning-to-learn phenomena have been examined from a variety of perspectives. Learning strategies are considered to be any behaviors or thoughts that facilitate encoding in such a way that knowledge integration and retrieval are enhanced. More specifically, these thoughts and behaviors constitute organized plans of action designed to achieve a goal. Cognitive strategies as discussed above provide a structure for learning that actively promotes the comprehension and retention of knowledge through the use of engaging
Technology-aided instruction has helped to develop customised learning tools to maximize the benefit. O’Conner (1998) states that it is necessary to examine learning
Behaviourism and cognitive theories are just two of the many learning processes and both can be successfully used within the learning process. They both offer reinforcements to obtain required behaviours. Cognitive theory emphases observations that can be used to understand what and how people learn and how they take control of their own behaviour. (Ormrod, 2008) Behaviourism
Central of critical thinking is the ability to think "outside" a piece of writing. Not only understanding the writer 's message but deciding whether the message is valid or not. Next you need to decide whether there is an evidence or any discussion given that supports the message. Then think about how the message fits into the broader context. Some people think that critical thinking obstruct creativity because it requires following the rules of logic and rationally.
Their impacts on my facilitation are discussed with appropriate examples from my teaching experiences. Further, factors and issues that impacts adult and collegial learning’s are discussed and how these theories can be influence my facilitation implications in formal and non-formal context are discussed with examples which can optimize learning. Kolb experiential learning theory (Kolb ,1984) Kolb’s theory deals with the power of learning through experience.
All these factors impact a person and the community (Richards, Picket,
To improve learning in higher education, the primary focus should be on engaging students in a process that best enhances their learning – a process that contains feedback on the effectiveness of their learning efforts. Education must be conceived as a continuing reconstruction of experience, the process and goal of education are one and the same thing. Dewey (1897) all learning is re-learning. Learning is best facilitated by a process that draws out the students’ beliefs and ideas about a topic so that they can be examined, tested and integrated with new, more refined ideas. Learning needs the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world.
2 Describe the three domains of learning and their application (25) In learning there is the ability to acquire mental skills, develop different attitudes and perform new physical activities .A domain is A domain is a unique field of thought, activity, or interest, especially one over which someone has control, influence, or rights. Domains can be categorized as cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills) and affective (attitude) and each has different levels from simplest to highest. They help teachers to plan and choose learning experiences and are interlinked depending on each other.